Chapter 4 Court Cases - Barron v Baltimore(1833 that the Bill of Rights restrained only the national government not the states and cities Constitutional

Chapter 4 Court Cases - Barron v Baltimore(1833 that the...

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Barron v. Baltimore (1833) - that the Bill of Rights restrained only the national government, not the states and cities. Constitutional limits did not apply to states unless expressly stated, Marshall used the example of Article I, Sections 9 and 10. Gitlow v. New York (1925) - that freedoms of press and speech are “fundamental personal rights and liberties protected by the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment from impairment by the states” as well as by the federal government. Freedom of speech (First Amendment) Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) - that established that aid to church related schools must (1) have a secular legislative purpose; (2) have a primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion; and (3) not foster excessive government entanglement with religion. Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002) - that upheld a state program providing families with vouchers that could be used to pay for tuition at religious schools.Since the program was designed to provide no incentive for religious private, secular private, or public schools, the taxpayers did not want their money to pay for the children who wanted religious schooling. Engel v. Vitale (1962) - that state officials violated the First Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York’s schoolchildren.
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