Ancient history-notes by Priksha manthan Wifigyan.com.pdf - Pa ri aM ks h an th an F-yegkeâ ëe=bKeuee-1 an th meeceevÙe DeOÙeÙeve an â ØeeÛeerve

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Unformatted text preview: Pa ri aM ks h an th an F&-yegkeâ ëe=bKeuee-1 an th meeceevÙe DeOÙeÙeve an â ØeeÛeerve Yeejle keâe Fefleneme mebmkeâjCe-2019-20 aM (mebIe ueeskeâ mesJee DeeÙeesie, jepÙe ueeskeâ mesJee DeeÙeesie, ueesDej [email protected][&vesš, Ùet[erS-Sue[erS, heermeerSme (pes), keâce&Ûeejer ÛeÙeve DeeÙeesie, jsueJes Yeleea yees[&, Sve[erS, meer[erSme, meerheerSheâ, SueDeeF&meer, peerDeeF&meer, yeer-S[, Ùetpeermeer-vesš leLee DevÙe meYeer hejer#eeDeeW nsleg Skeâ mechetCe& meboYe& «evLe) cetuÙe : ` 60/- ks h (mee" ®heS cee$e) Pa ri 7R/5 kewâueeMehegjer keâ[email protected], leeMekebâo ceeie&, (efmØebie [sue veme&jer mketâue kesâ meeceves), efmeefJeue ueeFvme, Fueeneyeeo – 211001 ceesyeeFue veb. : 09335151971 Website: ; Facebook: JewOeeefvekeâ metÛevee mebheeokeâ keâer efueefKele Devegceefle kesâ efyevee `hejer#ee cebLeve : E-book ëe=bKeuee-ØeeÛeerve Yeejle keâe Fefleneme' mes efkeâmeer meece«eer keâe ve lees DevegkeâjCe efkeâÙee pee mekeâlee nw Deewj ve ner Fmes efkeâmeer ™he ceW hegve: efkeâmeer ceeOÙece Éeje ØekeâeefMele Ùee Øemeeefjle efkeâÙee pee mekeâlee nw~ `hejer#ee cebLeve : E-book ëe=bKeuee-ØeeÛeerve Yeejle keâe Fefleneme' ceW ØekeâeefMele efJeÛeej uesKekeâeW kesâ Deheves nQ, Gvemes mebheeokeâ keâe mencele nesvee pe™jer veneR nw~ mecemle Jeeo-ØeefleJeeo Fueeneyeeo GÛÛe vÙeeÙeeueÙe kesâ vÙeeefÙekeâ #es$eeefOekeâej kesâ DeOeerve ner ceevÙe neWies~ hejer#ee cebLeve : E-book ëe=bKeuee-ØeeÛeerve Yeejle keâe Fefleneme / 1 F&-yegkeâ ëe=K b euee-1 an â meeceevÙe DeOÙeÙeve an th ØeeÛeerve Yeejle keâe Fefleneme Deveg›eâceefCekeâe Deleerle kesâ DeOÙeÙeve nsleg keâeue-efJeYeepeve ...........................................3 “ Øeeiewefleneefmekeâ keâeue ...................................................................3 “ nÌ[hhee meYÙelee ........................................................................6 “ Jewefokeâ keâeue .........................................................................17 “ ØeeÛeerve YeejleerÙe Oece& SJeb oMe&ve ..................................................24 “ cenepeveheo keâeue ....................................................................33 “ ceieOe keâe Glkeâ<e& .....................................................................34 “ ceewÙe& meeceüepÙe .......................................................................35 “ ceewÙeexòej keâeue .......................................................................42 “ ieghle keâeue ...........................................................................49 “ ieghleesòej keâeue.........................................................................53 “ jepehetle keâeue (hetJe& ceOÙekeâeue) ...................................................54 “ oef#eCe Yeejle ........................................................................59 Pa ri ks h aM “ hejer#ee cebLeve : E-book ëe=bKeuee-ØeeÛeerve Yeejle keâe Fefleneme / 2 ØeeÛeerve Yeejle keâe Fefleneme an Deleerle kesâ DeOÙeÙeve nsleg keâeue efJeYeepeve an th 1. Øeeiewefleneefmekeâ keâeue - efpeme keâeue keâe ceeveJe efkeâmeer meYÙelee keâe DeOÙeÙeve Fmeer kesâ Devleie&le efkeâÙee peelee nww~ Øekeâej keâer efueefhe DeLeJee uesKeve keâuee mes heefjefÛele veneR Lee~ 3. Ssefleneefmekeâ keâeue - efpeme keâeue keâe ceeveJe efkeâmeer ve ceeveJe Glheefòe mes ueskeâj ueieYeie 3000F&.het. kesâ yeerÛe keâe efkeâmeer Øekeâej keâer efueefhe mes heefjefÛele Lee Deewj Jen efueefhe heÌ{er meceÙe Fmekesâ Devleie&le Deelee nw~ hee<eeCe keâeue SJeb leeceü pee Ûegkeâer nes DeLee&led ceeveJe kesâ efpeve ef›eâÙee-keâueeheeW keâe nceW hee<eeCe keâeue keâe DeOÙeÙeve Fmeer kesâ Devleie&le efkeâÙee peelee nw~ efueefKele efJeJejCe Øeehle neslee nw Deewj Jen efJeJejCe heÌ{e pee Ûegkeâe nes Gmes nce Fefleneme keânles nQ~ 5JeeR Meleeyoer F&. het. 2. DeeÅewefleneefmekeâ keâeue - efpeme keâeue keâe ceeveJe efkeâmeer ve efkeâmeer Øekeâej keâer efueefhe mes heefjefÛele Lee uesefkeâve Jen efueefhe mes ueskeâj Jele&ceeve lekeâ keâe DeOÙeÙeve Fmeer kesâ Devleie&le efkeâÙee DeYeer lekeâ heÌ{er ve ieF& nes~ nÌ[hhee meYÙelee SJeb Jewefokeâ peelee nw~ aM Øeeiewefleneefmekeâ keâeue hee<eeCe keâeue “ “ Yeejle ceW meJe&ØeLece 1863 F&. ceW hee<eeCe keâeueerve meYÙelee keâer Keespe keâer ieF&~ jeyeš& yeÇmt e Hegâš (Yet-Jew%eeefvekeâ) ves henuee hegje hee<eeCe keâeueerve GhekeâjCe ceõeme kesâ heeme heuueJejced veecekeâ mLeeve mes Øeehle efkeâÙee Lee~ ks h “ hee<eeCe keâeue keâes DeOÙeÙeve keâer megefJeOee keâer Âef° mes leerve keâeueeW ceW efJeYeeefpele efkeâÙee ieÙee nw~ Dehevee Yeespeve meb«en keâjlee Lee~ “ “ Yeejle keâer efvecve hegjehee<eeCe keâeueerve mebmke=âefle keâes oes JeieeX ceW efJeYeeefpele efkeâÙee ieÙee nw~ Ûeehej-ÛeeeEheie hesyegue mebmke=âefle “ 1. hegje hee<eeCe keâeue (5 ueeKe F&.het. mes 10 npeej F&.het.) Pa ri Fme keâeue kesâ GhekeâjCeeW ceW nQ[ Sskeäme, Ûeehej-ÛeeeEheie SJeb hesyegue GhekeâjCe cegKÙe Les~ Ùen mebmke=âefle heeefkeâmleeve kesâ hebpeeye ceW meesnve veoer Ieešer ceW meJe&ØeLece ØekeâeMe ceW DeeÙeer~ Dele: Fmes meesnve mebmke=âefle Ùee meesnve GÅeesie kesâ veece mes peevee peelee nw~ 2. ceOÙe hee<eeCe keâeue (10 npeej F&.het. mes 4 npeej F&.het.) nQ[ Sskeäme mebmke=âefle 3. veJehee<eeCe keâeue (7 npeej F&.het. mes 1 npeej F&.het) “ Fme mebmke=âefle keâe cegKÙe GhekeâjCe nQ[ Sskeäme nw~ Fmes SMÙetueve “ hegje hee<eeCe keâeue keâes DeOÙeÙeve keâer megeJf eOee keâer Âef° mes hegve: leerve keâeueeW ceW efJeYeeefpele efkeâÙee ieÙee nw efvecve hegje hee<eeCe keâeue “ Fme keâeue ceW ceeveJe peerJeve DeefmLej Lee~ efMekeâej keâjkesâ Jen mebmke=âefle kesâ veece mes peevee peelee nw~ “ Fme mebmke=âefle kesâ GhekeâjCe meJe&ØeLece ceõeme kesâ efvekeâš Deefòejceheckeâced mes Øeehle ngS nQ~ FmeerefueS Fmes ceõemeer mebmke=âefle Ùee ceõemeer GÅeesie kesâ veece mes peevee peelee nw~ hejer#ee cebLeve : E-book ëe=bKeuee-ØeeÛeerve Yeejle keâe Fefleneme / 3 “ “ “ Fme keâeue ceW helLej kesâ Heâuekeâ keâer meneÙelee mes GhekeâjCeeW keâe efvecee&Ce efkeâÙee ieÙee~ Dele: Fme keâeue keâes Heâuekeâ mebmke=âefle kesâ veece mes peevee peelee nw~ Fme keâeue ceW m›esâhej (KegjÛeveer) yesOekeâ, yesOeefveÙeeb Deeefo GhekeâjCe yeveeÙes ieÙes~ iebieeIeešer, Demece, efmeefkeäkeâce SJeb kesâjue keâes Úes[Ì keâj mechetCe& Yeejle mes Fme mebmke=âefle kesâ GhekeâjCe Øeehle ngS nQ~ GÛÛe hegjehee<eeCe keâeue “ “ “ “ “ Fueeneyeeo efpeues ceW yesueveIeešer ceW efmLele ueeWnoe mes nñer keâer yeveer veejer keâer cete|le efceueer nw~ Fmeer keâeue keâe ceeveJe henueer yeej jnves kesâ efueS iegHeâeDeeW keâe ØeÙeesie keâjvee ØeejcYe efkeâÙee~ Yeerceyesškeâe (ce.Øe.) keâer heneefÌ[ÙeeW mes Fme keâeue keâer iegHeâeÙeW Øeehle ngF& nQ efpevekeâe ØeÙeesie jnves kesâ efueS efkeâÙee peelee Lee~ Fmeer keâeue keâe ceeveJe meJe&ØeLece efÛe$ekeâejer keâjvee ØeejcYe efkeâÙee~ Yeerceyesškeâe keâer iegHeâeDeeW mes Fme keâeue kesâ yeves efÛe$e Øeehle nesles nQ~ “ “ “ “ ceOÙe hee<eeCe keâeue “ “ ceOÙe hee<eeCe keâeueerve meyemes ØeeÛeerve %eele mLeue mejeÙe veenj jeÙe, cenone (ØeleeheieÌ{) nw~ Fme meceÙe helLej kesâ GhekeâjCeeW ceW leerj keâe pees veeskeâ yeveeÙee ieÙee Jen Fme Ùegie keâe efJeefMe° GhekeâjCe nw efpevnW met#ce hee<eeCe GhekeâjCe (ceeF›eâesefueLe) keâne ieÙee~ Fme keâeue kesâ DevÙe GhekeâjCeeW ceW FkeâOeej Heâuekeâ, yesOekeâ yesOeveer, Ûeeketâ, le#Ceer SJeb DeOe&Ûevõekeâej ØecegKe nw~ Fme keâeue kesâ ØecegKe GhekeâjCeeW ceW le#eveer, Ûeeketâ, m›esâhej, yesOekeâ SJeb yesOeefveÙeeb nQ~ le#eveer Fme keâeue keâe efJeefMe° “ Fmeer keâeue ceW meJe&ØeLece ceeveJe kebâkeâeue Øeehle nesles nQ~ veJe hee<eeCe keâeue GhekeâjCe nw~ Pa ri “ “ ceOÙe ØeosMe ceW DeeoceieÌ{ Deewj jepemLeeve ceW yeeieewjw heMegheeueve keâe ØeeÛeervelece mee#Ùe Øemlegle keâjles nQ efpemekeâe meceÙe 5000 F&.het. Lee~ aM “ Fmeer keâeue ceW meJe&ØeLece nesceesmesehf eÙebme (%eeveer ceeveJe) keâe GoÙe ngDee~ ks h “ “ Fme keâeue keâe ceeveJe Deye heMegheeueve keâjvee Yeer ØeejcYe keâj efoÙee~ an th “ “ an ceOÙe hegjehee<eeCe keâeue Ùen keâeue hegjehee<eeCe keâeue Deewj veJe hee<eeCe keâeue kesâ ceOÙe Skeâ meb›eâceCe keâeue Lee~ Jemlegle: Ùen keâeue veJe hee<eeCe keâeue keâe De«eieeceer Lee~ “ Fme meceÙe peueJeeÙeg iece& nes ieF&, Deye yeHe&â keâer peien Ieeme mes Yejs cewoeve Gieves ØeejcYe nes ieS~ “ keâeue›eâce kesâ Devegmeej Ùen Ùegie keâeHeâer Úesše nw, efHeâj Yeer meejs ›eâeefvlekeâejer heefjJele&ve Fmeer Ùegie ceW ngS nQ~ efJeÕe mlej hej Fme mebmke=âefle keâe ØeejcYe 9000 F&.het. ceW heef§ece SefMeÙee ceW ngDee~ heef§ece SefMeÙee kesâ ceeveJe keâes peew, iesntB, ouenve, efleuenve, Deeefo kesâ ™he ceW cenlJehetCe& KeeÅeeVe Øeoeve efkeâÙee~ Ùeneb keâer ØeeÛeervelece veJe hee<eeCe Ùegieerve yemleer cesnjieÌ{ (heeefkeâmleeve) nw~ ke=âef<e keâe meyemes henuee Deewj mhe° ØeceeCe ÙeneR mes efceuee leLee Fme peien kesâ ceeveJe ves 7000 F&. het. ceW ke=âef<e Glheeove ØeejcYe keâj efoÙee Lee~ Fmeer lejn Yeejle ceW keâesueef[nJee veecekeâ mLeeve mes ÛeeJeue Gieeves keâe ØeeÛeerve mee#Ùe Øeehle neslee nw, Fmekeâe meceÙe Yeer 5000 F&.het. kesâ ueieYeie Deelee nw~ veJe hee<eeCe keâeue ceW efmLej Jeemeer ueesie Kesleer mes heefjefÛele nes ieS Les leLee heeuelet heMeg Yeer jKeves ueies Les~ hejer#ee cebLeve : E-book ëe=bKeuee-ØeeÛeerve Yeejle keâe Fefleneme / 4 “ “ keâMceerj ceW efpeme veJehee<eeCe keâeue keâe efJekeâeme ngDee Gmes keâMceerjer veJehee<eeCe mebmke=âefle kesâ veece mes peevee peelee nw~ yegpee&nesce mebmke=âefle kesâ ueesie ieºs Jeeues cekeâeveeW ceW jnles Les~ yegpee&nesce mes ceeveJe kesâ meeLe kegâòes keâes Yeer oHeâveeves keâe ØeceeCe efceuelee nw~ cenlJehetCe& leLÙe “ “ “ “ “ jeyeš& yeÇtme Hetâš efpevneWves hee<eeCekeâeueerve meYÙelee keâer Keespe keâer, Skeâ Yet-Jew%eeefvekeâ Les~ ceOÙe ØeosMe ceW vece&oe Ieešer ceW efmLele nLeveewje mes ceeveJe KeesheÌ[er keâe peerJeeMce Øeehle ngDee nw~ pees Yeejle ceW meyemes ØeeÛeerve nw~ ueeWnoe (yesueveIeešer) mes nñer keâer yeveer veejer keâer cete|le Øeehle ngF& nw pees GÛÛe hegje hee<eeCe keâeue mes mecyeefvOele nw~ heMegheeueve keâe ØeeÛeervelece ØeceeCe DeeoceieÌ{ SJeb yeeieewj mes Øeehle neslee nw~ yegpee&nesce mebmke=âefle kesâ ueesie peceerve kesâ Deboj ieºs yeveekeâj efveJeeme keâjles Les~ ÙeneR mes ceeveJe kesâ meeLe kegâòes keâes oHeâveeÙes peeves keâe ØeceeCe efceuelee nw~ Pa ri leeceü-hee<eeCe keâeue “ 1. keäJesše mebmke=âefle yeuetefÛemleeve ceW heeb[gjbie kesâ ce=odYeeb[eW keâe ØeÙeesie~ 2. kegâuueer mebmkeâefle yeuetefÛemleeve ceW heeb[jg ib e kesâ ueshe hej keâeues jbie mes efÛe$eCe Jeeues ce=odYeeb[~ 3. veeue-Deeceea mebmke=âefle yeuetefÛemleeve SJeb eEmeOe ceW heeb[gjbie kesâ ueshe hej yengjbieer DeuebkeâjCe Jeeues ce=odYeeb[~ 4. Peesye mebmke=âefle yeuetefÛemleeve ceW ueeue jbie kesâ ueshe hej keâeues jbie mes efÛe$eCe Jeeues ce=odYeeb[~ 5. keâesefšoerpeer mebmke=âefle efmebOe ceW ueeue jbie kesâ ueshe hej ogeOf eÙee jbie keâer heóer efpeme hej yengjbieer DeuebkeâjCe Jeeues ce=odYeeb[~ 6. hetJe& nÌ[hhee mebmke=âefle hebpeeye ueeue Ùee yeQieveer jbie kesâ (heeefkeâmleeve) ceW ueshe hej keâeues jbie keâer OeeefjÙeeW Jeeuee ce=odYeeb[~ efJeÕe kesâ ØeeÛeervelece ce=odYeeb[ yesueveIeešer ceW efmLele Ûeesheeveer ceeb[es mes Øeehle ngS nQ~ ks h “ hetJe& meQOeJe leeceü-hee<eeefCekeâ mebmke=âefleÙeeB an “ FmeefueS Keeves-heerves kesâ yele&veeW keâer FvnW pe™jle ngF& Dele: kegâcYekeâejer meyemes henues Fmeer keâeue ceW efoKeeF& oer~ aM an th “ efpeme keâeue keâe ceeveJe helLej kesâ GhekeâjCeeW kesâ meeLe-2 leebyes kesâ GhekeâjCeeW keâe ØeÙeesie keâjvee ØeejcYe efkeâÙee, Gmeer keâeue keâes leeceü-hee<eeCe keâeue keânles nQ~ ØecegKe leLÙe “ meJee&eOf ekeâ hetJe& meQOeJe leeceü-hee<eeefCekeâ mebmke=âefleÙeeb yeueteÛf emleeve mes Øeehle ngF& nQ~ “ DeneÌ[ keâe ØeeÛeerve veece leeceüJeleer efceuelee nw~ “ leeceü-hee<eeCe keâeue keâes kewâukeâeseuf eefLekeâ Ùegie Yeer keâne peelee nw~ “ iewefjkeâ ce=oYeeb[ hee$e keâe veecekeâjCe nefmleveehegj mes Øeehle ce=oYeeb[eW kesâ DeeOeej hej efkeâÙee ieÙee nw~ hejer#ee cebLeve : E-book ëe=bKeuee-ØeeÛeerve Yeejle keâe Fefleneme / 5 nÌ[hhee meYÙelee (Harappa Civilization) “ “ “ an an th “ “ meYÙelee’ jKee, keäÙeeWekf eâ Ùen Fefleneme keâer hejbheje keâe heeueve keâjlee nw~ Ùen veece Fme meYÙelee keâe GheÙegòeâ veece nw, keäÙeeWekf eâ Ùen efkeâmeer Yeewieeseuf ekeâ #es$e keâes Fbeif ele veneR keâjlee nw~ meercee efveOee&jCe SJeb #es$e efJemleej–nÌ[hhee meYÙelee keâe efJemleej YeejleerÙe GheceneÉerhe ceW Yeejle, heeefkeâmleeve SJeb DeHeâieeefvemleeve leerve osMeeW ceW ngDee~ Fme meYÙelee kesâ meJee&efOekeâ hegjemLeue Yeejle mes Øeehle ngS nQ~ Fme meYÙelee keâe efJemleej heefMÛece ceW meglkeâeieW[esj (heeefkeâmleeve kesâ yeuetefÛemleeve) mes ueskeâj hetjye ceW Deeueceieerjhegj (G.Øe. kesâ cesj" efpeues ceW) lekeâ ueieYeie 1600 efkeâceer.~ Gòej ceW ceeB[e (peccet-keâMceerj) mes ueskeâj oef#eCe ceW oeF&ceeyeeo (ceneje„^) lekeâ ueieYeie 1400 efkeâceer0 uecyes #es$e ceW ngDee~ Fme meYÙelee keâe #es$eHeâue ueieYeie 16 ueeKe Jeie& efkeâceer. nw~ Fme meYÙelee keâe efJemleej Yeejle ceW hebpeeye, nefjÙeeCee, jepemLeeve, iegpejele, ceneje„^, G.Øe. SJeb peccet-keâMceerj ceW ngDee~ heeefkeâmleeve ceW he.hebpeeye, efmevOe SJeb yeuetefÛemleeve Øeevle ceW leLee DeHeâieeefvemleeve ceW ngDee~ meJee&eOf ekeâ hegjemLeue mejmJeleer veoer Ieešer ceW heeÙes ieÙes~ efkeâmeer Skeâ Øeevle ceW meJee&eOf ekeâ hegjemLeue iegpejele mes Øeehle ngS nQ~ Fme meYÙelee kesâ heeme 1300 efkeâceer. uecyee mecegõ leš nw~ “ “ “ aM “ nÌ[hhee meYÙelee Skeâ megeJf ekeâefmele keâeBmÙeÙegieerve veiejerÙe meYÙelee Leer~ leeByes mes DeefOekeâ cepeyetle keâeBmes kesâ DeewpeejeW keâe GheÙeesie, uesKeve keâuee keâe %eeve, veiej-MenjeW ceW jnves keâes meYÙelee keâe Øeleerkeâ ceevee peelee nw~ veecekeâjCe—YeejleerÙe GheceneÉerhe ceW efJekeâefmele Fme ØeeÛeerve ceneve meYÙelee keâes efmevOegIeešer keâer meYÙelee, meQOeJe meYÙelee, efmevOeg meYÙelee SJeb nÌ[hhee meYÙelee kesâ veece mes peevee peelee nw~ Fme meYÙelee keâe ØeLece Keespee ieÙee mLeue nÌ[hhee nw pees jeJeer veoer kesâ leš hej efmLele nw~ Fmekesâ yeeo ØeejbefcYekeâ Je<eeX ceW efpeve mLeueeW keâer Keespe SJeb GlKeveve keâeÙe& efkeâÙee ieÙee pewmes–ceesnvepeesoÌ[es, Ûevnto[Ì es, Deeceüe,r keâesešf oerepf e, Deueercegjeo Deeefo meYeer efmevOeg veoer kesâ leš hej efmLele nQ, Dele: hegjeefJeoeW ves ØeejcYe ceW Fme ØeeÛeerve meYÙelee keâe veece ‘efmevOegIeešer keâer meYÙelee’ veece efoÙee~ keâeueevlej ceW Fme meYÙelee kesâ ØeceeCe efmevOeg Ieešer mes yeenj DevÙe #es$eeW ceW heeÙes ieÙes pewmes–mejmJeleer Ieešer, Ùecegvee Ieešer, ieesoeJejer Ieešer Deeefo mes~ Dele: Ùen veece DevegheÙegòeâ nes ieÙee keäÙeeWekf eâ Ùen Yeewieeseuf ekeâ #es$e keâes Fbeif ele keâjlee nw~ leye hegjeefJeoeW ves Fme meYÙelee kesâ ØeLece Keespes ieÙes mLeue kesâ veece hej Fme meYÙelee keâe veece ‘nÌ[hhee ks h “ “ veesš–efmevOeg meYÙelee kesâ ØecegKe mLeueeW keâer Yeewieesefuekeâ efmLeefle Ûeeš& ceW osKeW— efmevOeg meYÙelee kesâ cenlJehetCe& mLeue, Yeewieesefuekeâ efmLeefle SJeb JeneB mes Øeehle JemlegÙeW mLeue keâe veece veoer Keespe Je<e& Keespekeâlee&/ GlKevevekeâlee& heeefkeâmleeve jeJeer 1921 oÙeejece meenveer Pa ri 1- nÌ[hhee osMe/Øeevle/ efpeuee he. hebpeeye efceueer JemlegÙeW 1- ßeefcekeâ DeeJeeme 2. 18 Je=òeekeâej SJeb ceeIeJe mJe¤he Jelme Ûeyetlejs 3. 16 Yeefš"ÙeeB 4. Keb[eW ceW ceeBšieescejer DeVeeieej 5. meesves keâe yevee nej (MeenerJeeue) 6. ØemeeOeve yeekeäme 7. heeG[j 8. keâepeue hejer#ee cebLeve : E-book ëe=bKeuee-ØeeÛeerve Yeejle keâe Fefleneme / keâer ef[efyeÙee 9. ieOes keâe ØeceeCe 10. leeByes mes yevee hewceevee 11. ùoÙeekeâej cevekeâe Deeefo~ 6 peesoÌ[es heeefkeâmleeve efmevOeg jeKeeue oeme yevepeea 1. efJeMeeue (Meeefyokeâ DeLe& efmevOe GlKeveve keâeÙe&- DeVeeieej 3. meYee YeJeve 4. hegjesefnle nw ce=lekeâes keâe uejkeâevee ceeMe&ue Éeje DeeJeeme 5. ce=lekeâeW keâer ieueer 6. ieesceso 1922 mveeveeieej 2. efJeMeeue an 2- ceesnve kesâ cevekesâ mes yevee nej 7. ÛeeBoer keâer Debiet"er 8. ÛeeBoer keâer ef[yyeer ceW ueeue keâheÌ[s keâe mee#Ùe 9. keâeBmes keâer yeveer vele&keâer keâer cete|le 10. helLej efvee|cele Ùeesieer keâer cete|le 11. meerhe keâe yevee hewceevee 12. Skeâ cegõe ceW leerve efmej Jeeues osJelee keâe efÛe$e (Deeefo efMeJe) 3- ÛevntoÌ[es heeefkeâmleeve efmevOeg efmevOe (DeeOegevf ekeâ veece hebpeeye ¤heveiej) 5- yeveeJeueer Yeejle meleuepe 1950 1. iegejf Ùee yeer.yeer. ueeue mejmJeleer 1973 Yeejle — 1969 nefjÙeeCee FËš 4. ceeveJe kesâ meeLe kegâòes keâes oHeâveeÙes peeves keâe ØeceeCe~ Deej.Sme. efJe„ 1. Skeâ cekeâeve ceW JeeMe Jesefmeve keâe ØeceeCe 2. efKeueewves kesâ ¤he ceW efceóer efnmeej 6- jeKeerieÌ{er cevekeâe yeveeves keâe keâejKeevee Skeâ FËš hej kegâòes SJeb efyeuueer kesâ hewj kesâ efveMeeve GlKeveve-1953 Ùe%eoòe Mecee& ks h nefjÙeeCee Sve.peer. cepegceoej aM Yeejle 1934 2. efueefhemškeâ 3. Je›eâekeâej veJeeyeMeen 4- jesheÌ[ an th šeruee) keâe yevee nue peew~ metjpeYeeve SJeb 3. Gòece efkeâmce keâe Yeejle keâe meJee&efOekeâ yeÌ[e hegjemLeue~ YeieJeeve oeme Pa ri peeRo 7- keâeueeryebiee Yeejle jepemLeeve iebieeveiej IeiIej 1953 Deceueevebo Iees<e 1. nue GlKeveve-1961 yeer.yeer. ueeue SJeb 2. Skeâ ner Kesle mes oes Heâmeue Gieeves kesâ mee#Ùe~ 3. Deuebke=âle yeer.kesâ. Leehej hejer#ee cebLeve : E-book ëe=bKeuee-ØeeÛeerve Yeejle keâe Fefleneme / mes pegles ngS Kesle kesâ efveMeeve~ 7 Fb&š kesâ ØeceeCe~ 4. efceóer keâe yevee hewceevee~ 5. Deefive JesefokeâeÙeW~ Yeejle Denceoeyeeo ieeWoeryeeÌ[e ([ekeâÙee[&) 5. neBLeer oeBle mes efvee|cele hewceevee 6. DeefiveJesefokeâeÙeW 7. helLej efvee|cele Je=òeekeâej Ûekeäkeâer kesâ oes heeš 8. iegefjuuee keâer ce=Ccete|le~ Yeejle ceevenj 1967 pes.heer. peesMeer iegpejele SJeb GlKeveve-1990 Deej.Sme. efye„ keâÛÚ ceevemej “ “ keâe ØeceeCe 2. meesves keâer Debiet"er 3. metÛevee heó keâe ØeceeCe 4. “ meeceevÙele: FËšeW keâe Deekeâej 10' ´ 5' ´ 2½ FbÛe Lee efpeveceW 4 : 2 : 1 keâe Devegheele Lee~ meeceevÙe efJeMes<eleeÙeW—efmevOeg meYÙelee kesâ veiej efJeMJe kesâ ØeeÛeervelece megefveÙeesefpele veiej nQ~ Ssmee Øeleerle neslee nw ØecegKe veiejeW keâer efJeMes<elee– efkeâ mechetCe& veiej efkeâmeer mebmLee kesâ efveoxMeevegmeej yeveJeeÙes “ nÌ[hhee–nÌ[hhee veiej oes Keb[eW ceW efJeYeòeâ Lee, heefMÛece ceW ieÙes nQ~ ogie& #es$e SJeb hetjye ceW efveÛeuee veiej Lee~ meÌ[keWâ meerOeer efoMee ceW Skeâ otmejs kesâ mecekeâesCe hej keâešleer “ ogie& #es$e mes yeenj Gòej ceW Skeâ šerues kesâ GlKeveve mes kegâÚ ngF& veiej keâes Deveskeâ Jeiee&keâej leLee Ûeleg&Yegpeekeâej KeC[eW ceW cenlJehetCe& DeJeMes<e Øeehle ngS nQ pewmes– efJeYeeefpele keâjleer Leer~ 1. cepeotjeW keâes jnves kesâ efueS ßeefcekeâ yemleer–kegâue 15 efmevOeg meYÙelee ceW meJee&efOekeâ ÛeewÌ[er meÌ[keâ ceesnve peesoÌ[eW mes cekeâeve Øeehle ngS nQ~ Øeehle ngF& efpemekeâer ÛeewÌ[eF& ueieYeie 10 ceer0 Leer~ hegjeefJeoeW ves meeceevÙele: cekeâeveeW ceW 4 Ùee 5 keâcejs yeveeÙes peeles Les~ cekeâeve ceW Deebieve, jmeesF& Iej, mveeveeieej, kegBâS leLee kegâÚ yeÌ[s IejeW ceW MeewÛeeueÙe yeveeÙes peeles Les~ Pa ri “ 1. peueeMeÙeeW mšsef[Ùece~ Fmes jepeheLe/ØeLece meÌ[keâ keâer meb%ee oer nw~ “ yeveeves aM “ 1. DeVeeieej 2. iegefjÙee-cevekeâe keâe keâejKeevee 3. jbieeF& kegbâ[ 4. ks h “ Sme.Deej. jeJe iegpejele veiej efveÙeespeve “ 1954 an 9- OeewueeJeerje YeesieJee an th 8- ueesLeue 2. Fmeer kesâ heeme mes 16 YeefªÙeeB Øeehle ngF& nQ efpemeceW keâesÙeues Deewj kebâ[s keâer jeKe efceueer nQ~ hegjeefJeoeW ves Fmes leeByee ieueeves keâe keâejKeevee ceevee nw~ 3. ÙeneR mes hekeâer FËšeW mes efvee|cele 18 Je=òeekeâej Ûeyetlejs efceues nQ efpevekesâ ceOÙe ceW Skeâ ieñe nw~ ieºs ceW iesntB peew SJeb jeKe kesâ mee#Ùe efceues nQ~ meeceevÙele: cekeâeve kesâ ojJeepes cegKÙe meÌ[keâeW hej ve Keguekeâj ieefueÙeeW ceW Kegueles Les~ nÌ[hhee Deewj ceesnvepeeso[Ì eW ceW cekeâeveeW kesâ efvecee&Ce ceW meeceevÙele: hekeâer FËšeW keâe ØeÙeesie efceuelee nw, peyeefkeâ DevÙe mLeueeW ...
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