ELEC2420_1_Fundamentals-2.pdf - ELEC 2420 Basic Electronics Chapter 1 Fundamentals Instructor Professor Abhishek Kumar Srivastava Course Website

ELEC2420_1_Fundamentals-2.pdf - ELEC 2420 Basic Electronics...

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ELEC 2420 Basic Electronics Chapter 1: Fundamentals Instructor: Professor Abhishek Kumar Srivastava Course Website: HKUST, 2019 Fall
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1-2 Chapter 1: Fundamentals 1. Units and Derived Units 2. Charge 3. Current 4. Voltage 5. Circuit and Network 6. Lumped Circuit Model 7. Terminals and Ports 8. Reference Direction 9. Power 10. Active and Passive Components 11. Voltage and Current Sources
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1-3 Units and Derived Units Table 1-1 Fundamental Units Quantity Symbol Unit Abbreviation Length l meter m Mass m kilogram kg Time t second s Temperature T Kelvin K Current i ampere A Luminous intensity I candela cd
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1-4 Derived Units (1) Derived units : conversion and equivalence of units All derived units can be expressed as combination of fundamental units, and they are based on specific equations: F = ma newton = kg m/s 2 C = Q/V farad = coulomb/volt V = IR volt = ampere ohm The units on the two sides of an equation must be the same ( dimension analysis ): work done = energy work done = force x distance Joule = kg m/s 2 x m energy = E = mc 2 Joule = kg (m/s) 2 (same as above) Electric current is in ampere (A): [I] = [Q/s] [ampere] = [C/s] Electric potential is in volt (V): Power = V I [watt] = [V A]
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1-5 Table 1-2 Important Derived Units Quantities Symbol Definition Unit Abbr. (Alternative) Force F push or pull newton N kg m/s 2 Energy E ability to do work joule J N m Work done W k energy consumed joule J N m Power P energy / unit time watt W J/s Charge Q quantity of coulomb C A s electricity Current I rate of flow of ampere A C/s charge Voltage V energy/unit charge volt V W/A Electric field (E) force / unit charge volt/m V/m N/C strength Magnetic flux magnetic field weber Wb V s over a surface Magnetic flux B force / unit charge tesla T Wb/m 2 density momentum Derived Units (2)
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1-6 Prefixes Table 1-3 Standard Prefixes Multiplier Prefix Abbr. equivalent to 10 12 tera T trillion 10 9 giga G billion 10 6 mega ( ) M million 10 3 kilo ( ) k thousand 10 2 hecto h hundred 10 1 = 10 deka da 10 0 = 1 10 1 deci d 1/10 10 2 centi ( ) c 1/100 10 3 milli ( ) m 1/1000 10 6 micro ( ) 10 9 nano ( ) n 10 12 pico ( ) p 10 15 femto ( ) f 10 18 atto ( ) a
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1-7 Large Units and Prefixes Prefix Unit Examples 10 3 kilo thousand km, kHz 10 6 mega million MHz 10 9 giga billion GB, GHz 10 12 tera trillion TW, THz 10 15 peta quadrillion PHz In Chinese, prefix and unit are the same word. Jumps are in steps of 10 4 (not in exam). 10 3 三千大千世界 10 4 萬事勝意 10 8 億萬富翁 10 12 but 兆赫 = MHz! Very confusing! 10 16 10 20 垓( gai 10 24 秭( zi 10 28 穰( rang
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1-8 Example 1-1 Example 1-1: 1 fA = 10 15 A 1 THz = 10 12 Hz 1 nm = 10 9 m = 10 Å 1 Å = 10 10 m Å = angstrom Radius of a hydrogen atom = 0.5 Å Radius of an atom = a few Å
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1-9 Smallest object: strings inside elementary particles (10 35 m) Size of electron: 2.8 10 15 m Size of atom: ~1Å = 10 10 m Size of smallest transistor made : 5 nm Design rule for IC fabs: 45nm, 65nm, 90nm, 0.13 m, 0.18 m etc.
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