epidemiology slide 1.pdf - University Of Gondar College of Natural and computational Science Department of Statistics Biostatistics Epidemiology(Stat

epidemiology slide 1.pdf - University Of Gondar College of...

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University Of Gondar College of Natural and computational Science Department of Statistics Biostatistics & Epidemiology(Stat- 622) By Agmas S.(MSc. In Biostatistics) E-mail:[email protected] October, 2019 Gondar, Ethiopia
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Outline of the presentation Definition History of Epidemiology Scope of Epidemiology Purpose/Use of Epidemiology Assumptions in Epidemiology Clinical versus community medicine Community Diagnosis
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Objectives After the end of these sessions, learners are expected to Define epidemiology Summarize the historical evolution of epidemiology. List the key features and uses of descriptive epidemiology List the key features and uses of analytic epidemiology. List and describe the different modes of transmission of communicable disease.
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I DEFINITION AND BACKGROUND 1.1 Definition: Epidemiology is the study of the frequency , distribution , and determinants of diseases and other health related states or events in specified populations , the application of this study to the promotion of health and to the prevention and control of health problems.
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Important terms of the Definition Population: The focus of epidemiology is mainly on the population rather than individuals. Frequency: Shows epidemiology is mainly a quantitative science. Frequency of diseases is measured by morbidity rates and mortality rates. Distribution: Refers to the distribution of diseases in time , place and person . Determinants: Are factors which determine whether a person will get a disease or not.
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Health related conditions Conditions which directly or indirectly affect or influence health. These may be injuries, vital events, health related behaviors, social factors, economic factors, etc. The part of epidemiology concerned with the frequency and distribution of diseases by time, person, and place is called Descriptive epidemiology. - It asks the questions HOW MANY? WHERE? WHEN? WHAT? The part of epidemiology dealing with the causes and determinants of diseases is Analytic epidemiology. - It asks the questions HOW? WHY?
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1.2 Background History of Epidemiology Reading assignment
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Scope of Epidemiology Originally, epidemiology was concerned with epidemics of communicable diseases and epidemic investigations. Later - extended to endemic communicable diseases and non-communicable diseases
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Cont,d At present epidemiologic methods are being applied to: Infectious and non infectious diseases Injuries and accidents Nutritional deficiencies Maternal and child health Environmental health Cancer, Health behaviors, etc
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Purpose/Use of Epidemiology Elucidation of the natural history of disease Description of the health status of the population Establishing the determinants/causation of disease Evaluation of intervention
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Basic Assumptions in Epidemiology 1.Non random distribution of diseases i.e. the distribution of disease in human population is not random or by chance &
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