REPORT PART 1.docx - CONTENTS Acknowledgement iii Certificate iv Abstract v List of Symbols vi List of figures vii List of tables x 1 Introduction to

REPORT PART 1.docx - CONTENTS Acknowledgement iii...

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i CONTENTS Acknowledgement iii Certificate iv Abstract v List of Symbols vi List of figures vii List of tables x 1. Introduction to Surface Tension 1 1.1 Definition of Surface Tension 1 1.2 Units of Surface Tension 3 1.3 Factors Affecting Surface Tension 3 1.4 Governing equation of Surface tension 7 1.5 Scaling of Surface Tension 7 1.6 Phenomena Observed due to Surface Tension 9 2. Methods of Measurement of Surface Tension 15 2.1 Capillary Rise Method 15 2.2 Drop Volume Method 16 2.3 Whilmey Plate Method 20 2.4 Spinning Drop Method 21 2.5 Maximum Bubble Pressure Method 23 2.6 Du Nuoy Ring Method 25 2.7 Du Nuoy Padday Method 32 3. Development of Prototype of Tensiometer 35 3.1 Introduction 35 3.2 Principle of Construction 35 3.3 Mathematical Analysis 36 3.4 Construction 36 3.5 Dimensional Specifications and Primary Measurements 38 3.6 Initial Balancing of Apparatus 38 3.7 Working Procedure 38 3.8 Calculations 39 3.9 Result 39 3.10 Sources of Error 40 3.11 Modifications to Minimize Error 40 3.12 Limitations in Discussed Design of Prototype 41 4. Sealed Capillary Method 42
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ii 4.1 Introduction 42 4.2 Principle 42 4.3 Nomenclature 42 4.4 Procedure 43 4.5 Mathematical Analysis 43 4.6 Diameter of capillary tube 44 4.7 Sample Calculation 47 4.8 Advantages 47 4.9 Disadvantages 48 5. Discussion on Results 49 6. Conclusion 50 Appendix 51 References 52
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iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project has been a collective effort of many people. There are many people to whom I am grateful for providing their essential support and guidance which was necessary for the continuation of my project. They have made this journey a beautiful and learning experience which we will cherish throughout our life. In particular I express my gratitude and sincere regards to Prof. P.K. PANDA sir who taught me how to write and represent a academic project report.
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CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the work titled “Measurement of Surface Tension” submitted by Gaurav Upadyay is a term project for the course academic writing for science and technology (LLG 309).
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  • Fall '14
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