2 Acid Base Balance.docx - Lecture Notes NURS 360 Acid Base Balance pH The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 0 is very acidic 14 is very alkaline Each number

2 Acid Base Balance.docx - Lecture Notes NURS 360 Acid Base...

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Lecture Notes NURS 360 Acid Base Balance pH The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14: 0 is very acidic, 14 is very alkaline. Each number represents a factor of 10. If a solution moves from a pH of 6 to a pH of 5, the H + have increased 10 times. Regulation Acids are formed as end products of protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism To maintain the body’s normal pH (7.35-7.45) the H + must be neutralized or excreted The bones, lungs, and kidneys (take 12-24 hr) are the major organs involved in the regulation of acid and base balance Acid Volatile o H 2 CO 3 (can be eliminated as CO 2 gas) o When breathing is inadequate carbon dioxide accumulates. The extra CO 2 molecules combine with water to form carbonic acid which contributes to an acid pH . Nonvolatile o When normal metabolism is impaired - acid forms , e.g., poor blood supply stops oxidative metabolism and lactic acid forms . This acid is not respiratory so, by definition, it is “metabolic acid.” o Sulfuric, phosphoric, ketoacids o Metabolic acids are NOT based on respiration Base A Base is any substance that can donate an hydroxyl ion (OH - ); when an acid ( H + ) meets a base they neutralize each other’s electric charge. The four main buffer systems are the carbonic acid–bicarbonate system, the phosphate system, the protein system and hemoglobin.
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  • Spring '16
  • Kim McCarron

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