Principles of Power Systems V.K Mehta- By EasyEngineering.net.pdf - Downloaded From www.EasyEngineering.net ww w.E a syE ngi nee rin g.n et*Note Other

Principles of Power Systems V.K Mehta- By EasyEngineering.net.pdf

This preview shows page 1 out of 613 pages.

Unformatted text preview: Downloaded From : ww w.E a syE ngi nee rin g.n et **Note: Other Websites/Blogs Owners Please do not Copy (or) Republish this Materials, Students & Graduates if You Find the Same Materials with EasyEngineering.net Watermarks or Logo, Kindly report us to [email protected] Downloaded From : Downloaded From : CONTENTS CONTENTS CHAPTER  ww w Introduction .E asy E 1.1 Importance of Electrical Energy 1.2 Generation of Electrical Energy ngi E nee General nergy is the basic necessity for the economic development of a country. Many functions necessary to present-day living grind to halt when the supply of energy stops. It is practically impossible to estimate the actual magnitude of the part that energy has played in the building up of present-day civilisation. The availability of huge amount of energy in the modern times has resulted in a shorter working day, higher agricultural and industrial production, a healthier and more balanced diet and better transportation facilities. As a matter of fact, there is a close relationship between the energy used per person and his standard of living. The greater the per capita consumption of energy in a country, the higher is the standard of living of its people. Energy exists in different forms in nature but the most important form is the electrical energy. The modern society is so much dependent upon the use of electrical energy that it has become a part and parcel of our life. In this chapter, we shall focus our attention on the general aspects of electrical energy. 1.3 Sources of Energy 1.4 Comparison of Energy Sources 1.5 Units of Energy 1.6 Relationship Among Energy Units 1.7 Efficiency 1.8 Calorific Value of Fuels 1.9 Advantages of Liquid Fuels Over Solid Fuels 1.10 Advantages of Solid Fuels Over Liquid Fuels CONTENTS CONTENTS rin g.n e t 1 Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Principles of Power System 2 1.1 Importance of Electrical Energy Energy may be needed as heat, as light, as motive power etc. The present-day advancement in science and technology has made it possible to convert electrical energy into any desired form. This has given electrical energy a place of pride in the modern world. The survival of industrial undertakings and our social structures depends primarily upon low cost and uninterrupted supply of electrical energy. In fact, the advancement of a country is measured in terms of per capita consumption of electrical energy. Electrical energy is superior to all other forms of energy due to the following reasons : (i) Convenient form. Electrical energy is a very convenient form of energy. It can be easily converted into other forms of energy. For example, if we want to convert electrical energy into heat, the only thing to be done is to pass electrical current through a wire of high resistance e.g., a heater. Similarly, electrical energy can be converted into light (e.g. electric bulb), mechanical energy (e.g. electric motors) etc. (ii) Easy control. The electrically operated machines have simple and convenient starting, control and operation. For instance, an electric motor can be started or stopped by turning on or off a switch. Similarly, with simple arrangements, the speed of electric motors can be easily varied over the desired range. (iii) Greater flexibility. One important reason for preferring electrical energy is the flexibility that it offers. It can be easily transported from one place to another with the help of conductors. (iv) Cheapness. Electrical energy is much cheaper than other forms of energy. Thus it is overall economical to use this form of energy for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes. (v) Cleanliness. Electrical energy is not associated with smoke, fumes or poisonous gases. Therefore, its use ensures cleanliness and healthy conditions. (vi) High transmission efficiency. The consumers of electrical energy are generally situated quite away from the centres of its production. The electrical energy can be transmitted conveniently and efficiently from the centres of generation to the consumers with the help of overhead conductors known as transmission lines. ww w .Ea syE ngi nee 1.2 Generation of Electrical Energy rin g.n e The conversion of energy available in different forms in nature into electrical energy is known as generation of electrical energy. Electrical energy is a manufactured commodity like clothing, furniture or tools. Just as the manufacture of a commodity involves the conversion of raw materials available in nature into the desired form, similarly electrical energy is produced from the forms of energy available in nature. However, electrical energy differs in one important respect. Whereas other commodities may be produced at will and consumed as needed, the electrical energy must be produced and transmitted to the point of use at the instant it is needed. The entire process takes only a fraction of a second. This instantaneous production of electrical energy introduces technical and economical considerations unique to the electrical power industry. Energy is available in various forms from different natural sources such as pressure head of water, chemical energy of fuels, nuclear energy of radioactive substances etc. All these forms of energy can be converted into electrical energy by the use of suitable arrangements. The arrangement essentially employs (see Fig. 1.1) an alternator coupled to a prime mover. The prime mover is driven by the energy obtaimed from various sources t Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Introduction 3 such as burning of fuel, pressure of water, force of wind etc. For example, chemical energy of a fuel (e.g., coal) can be used to produce steam at high temperature and pressure. The steam is fed to a prime mover which may be a steam engine or a steam turbine. The turbine converts heat energy of steam into mechanical energy which is further converted into electrical energy by the alternator. Similarly, other forms of energy can be converted into electrical energy by employing suitable machinery and equipment. 1.3. Sources of Energy Since electrical energy is produced from energy available in various forms in nature, it is desirable to look into the various sources of energy. These sources of energy are : (i) The Sun (ii) The Wind (iii) Water (iv) Fuels (v) Nuclear energy. Out of these sources, the energy due to Sun and wind has not been utilised on large scale due to a number of limitations. At present, the other three sources viz., water, fuels and nuclear energy are primarily used for the generation of electrical energy. (i) The Sun. The Sun is the primary source of energy. The heat energy radiated by the Sun can be focussed over a small area by means of reflectors. This heat can be used to raise steam and electrical energy can be produced with the help of turbine-alternator combination. However, this method has limited application because : (a) it requires a large area for the generation of even a small amount of electric power (b) it cannot be used in cloudy days or at night (c) it is an uneconomical method. Nevertheless, there are some locations in the world where strong solar radiation is received very regularly and the sources of mineral fuel are scanty or lacking. Such locations offer more interest to the solar plant builders. (ii) The Wind. This method can be used where wind flows for a considerable length of time. The wind energy is used to run the wind mill which drives a small generator. In order to obtain the electrical energy from a wind mill continuously, the generator is arranged to charge the batteries. These batteries supply the energy when the wind stops. This method has the advantages that maintenance and generation costs are negligible. However, the drawbacks of this method are (a) variable output, (b) unreliable because of uncertainty about wind pressure and (c) power generated is quite small. (iii) Water. When water is stored at a suitable place, it possesses potential energy because of the head created. This water energy can be converted into mechanical energy with the help of water turbines. The water turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. This method of generation of electrical energy has become very popular because it has low production and maintenance costs. (iv) Fuels. The main sources of energy are fuels viz., solid fuel as coal, liquid fuel as oil and gas fuel as natural gas. The heat energy of these fuels is converted into mechanical energy by suitable prime movers such as steam engines, steam turbines, internal combustion engines etc. The prime mover drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Although fuels continue to enjoy the place of chief source for the generation of electrical energy, yet their reserves are diminishing day by day. Therefore, the present trend is to harness water power which is more or less a permanent source of power. (v) Nuclear energy. Towards the end of Second World War, it was discovered that large amount of heat energy is liberated by the fission of uranium and other fissionable materials. It is estimated that heat produced by 1 kg of nuclear fuel is equal to that produced by 4500 tonnes of coal. The heat produced due to nuclear fission can be utilised to raise steam with suitable arrangements. The steam ww w .Ea syE ngi nee rin g.n e t Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Principles of Power System 4 can run the steam turbine which in turn can drive the alternator to produce electrical energy. However, there are some difficulties in the use of nuclear energy. The principal ones are (a) high cost of nuclear plant (b) problem of disposal of radioactive waste and dearth of trained personnel to handle the plant. Coal Crude oil Natural gas ww w Hydro-electric power Nuclear power .Ea syE Renewables Energy Utilisation 1.4 Comparison of Energy Sources ngi nee The chief sources of energy used for the generation of electrical energy are water, fuels and nuclear energy. Below is given their comparison in a tabular form : S.No. Particular Water-power Fuels Low High Exhaustable Dirtiest Complex Highest Least Inexhaustible Clean Most complex Less reliable More reliable 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Initial cost Running cost Reserves Cleanliness Simplicity High Less Permanent Cleanest Simplest 6. Reliability Most reliable 1.5 Units of Energy Nuclear energy rin g.n e The capacity of an agent to do work is known as its energy. The most important forms of energy are mechanical energy, electrical energy and thermal energy. Different units have been assigned to various forms of energy. However, it must be realised that since mechanical, electrical and thermal energies are interchangeable, it is possible to assign the same unit to them. This point is clarified in Art 1.6. (i) Mechanical energy. The unit of mechanical energy is newton-metre or joule on the M.K.S. or SI system. The work done on a body is one newton-metre (or joule) if a force of one newton moves it through a distance of one metre i.e., Mechanical energy in joules = Force in newton × distance in metres (ii) Electrical energy. The unit of electrical energy is watt-sec or joule and is defined as follows: One watt-second (or joule) energy is transferred between two points if a p.d. of 1 volt exists between them and 1 ampere current passes between them for 1 second i.e., t Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Introduction 5 Electrical energy in watt-sec (or joules) = voltage in volts × current in amperes × time in seconds Joule or watt-sec is a very small unit of electrical energy for practical purposes. In practice, for the measurement of electrical energy, bigger units viz., watt-hour and kilowatt hour are used. 1 watt-hour = 1 watt × 1 hr = 1 watt × 3600 sec = 3600 watt-sec 5 1 kilowatt hour (kWh) = 1 kW × 1 hr = 1000 watt × 3600 sec = 36 x 10 watt-sec. (iii) Heat. Heat is a form of energy which produces the sensation of warmth. The unit* of heat is calorie, British thermal unit (B.Th.U.) and centigrade heat units (C.H.U.) on the various systems. Calorie. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of water through 1ºC i.e., 1 calorie = 1 gm of water × 1ºC Sometimes a bigger unit namely kilocalorie is used. A kilocalorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water through 1ºC i.e., 1 kilocalorie = 1 kg × 1ºC = 1000 gm × 1ºC = 1000 calories B.Th.U. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water through 1ºF i.e., 1 B.Th.U. = 1 lb × 1ºF C.H.U. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water through 1ºC i.e., 1 C.H.U. = 1 lb × 1ºC ww w .Ea syE ngi nee 1.6 Relationship Among Energy Units The energy whether possessed by an electrical system or mechanical system or thermal system has the same thing in common i.e., it can do some work. Therefore, mechanical, electrical and thermal energies must have the same unit. This is amply established by the fact that there exists a definite relationship among the units assigned to these energies. It will be seen that these units are related to each other by some constant. (i) Electrical and Mechanical 1 kWh = 1 kW × 1 hr 5 = 1000 watts × 3600 seconds = 36 × 10 watt-sec. or Joules 5 ∴ 1 kWh = 36 × 10 Joules It is clear that electrical energy can be expressed in Joules instead of kWh. (ii) Heat and Mechanical (a) 1 calorie = 4·18 Joules (By experiment) (b) 1 C.H.U. = 1 lb × 1ºC = 453·6 gm × 1ºC = 453·6 calories = 453·6 × 4·18 Joules = 1896 Joules ∴ 1C.H.U. = 1896 Joules (c) 1 B.Th.U. = 1 lb × 1ºF = 453·6 gm × 5/9 ºC = 252 calories = 252 × 4·18 Joules = 1053 Joules ∴ 1 B.Th.U. = 1053 Joules It may be seen that heat energy can be expressed in Joules instead of thermal units viz. calorie, B.Th.U. and C.H.U. * rin g.n e t The SI or MKS unit of thermal energy being used these days is the joule—exactly as for mechanical and electrical energies. The thermal units viz. calorie, B.Th.U. and C.H.U. are obsolete. Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Principles of Power System 6 (iii) Electrical and Heat 5 (a) 1 kWh = 1000 watts × 3600 seconds = 36 × 10 Joules 36 × 10 3 calories = 860 × 10 calories 4 ⋅18 3 1 kWh = 860 × 10 calories or 860 kcal 5 = ∴ (b) ∴ 1 kWh = 36 × 10 Joules = 36 × 10 /1896 C.H.U. = 1898 C.H.U. [Œ 1 C.H.U. = 1896 Joules] 1 kWh = 1898 C.H.U. (c) 1 kWh = 36 × 10 Joules = 5 5 ww w 5 36 × 10 B.Th.U. = 3418 B.Th.U. 1053 [Œ 1 B.Th.U. = 1053 Joules] 5 ∴ 1 kWh = 3418 B.Th.U. The reader may note that units of electrical energy can be converted into heat and vice-versa. This is expected since electrical and thermal energies are interchangeable. .Ea syE 1.7 Efficiency Energy is available in various forms from different natural sources such as pressure head of water, chemical energy of fuels, nuclear energy of radioactive substances etc. All these forms of energy can be converted into electrical energy by the use of suitable arrangement. In this process of conversion, some energy is lost in the sense that it is converted to a form different from electrical energy. Therefore, the output energy is less than the input energy. The output energy divided by the input energy is called energy efficiency or simply efficiency of the system. ngi nee rin g.n e Measuring efficiency of compressor. t Output energy Input energy As power is the rate of energy flow, therefore, efficiency may be expressed equally well as output power divided by input power i.e., Output power Efficiency, η = Input power Efficiency, η = Example 1.1. Mechanical energy is supplied to a d.c. generator at the rate of 4200 J/s. The generator delivers 32·2 A at 120 V. (i) What is the percentage efficiency of the generator ? (ii) How much energy is lost per minute of operation ? Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Introduction 7 Solution. (i) Input power, Output power, Pi = 4200 J/s = 4200 W Po = EI = 120 × 32·2 = 3864 W P 3864 × ∴ Efficiency, η = o × 100 = 100 = 92 % Pi 4200 (ii) Power lost, PL = Pi − Po = 4200 − 3864 = 336 W ∴ Energy lost per minute (= 60 s) of operation = PL × t = 336 × 60 = 20160 J Note that efficiency is always less than 1 (or 100 %). In other words, every system is less than 100 % efficient. 1.8 Calorific Value of Fuels ww w The amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a unit weight of fuel is known as its calorific value. Calorific value indicates the amount of heat available from a fuel. The greater the calorific value of fuel, the larger is its ability to produce heat. In case of solid and liquid fuels, the calorific value is expressed in cal/gm or kcal/kg. However, in case of gaseous fuels, it is generally stated in cal/litre or kcal/litre. Below is given a table of various types of fuels and their calorific values along with composition. .Ea syE S.No. Particular 1. Solid fuels (i) Lignite (ii) Bituminous coal (iii) Anthracite coal Liquid fuels (i) Heavy oil (ii) Diesel oil (iii) Petrol Gaseous fuels (i) Natural gas 2. 3. (ii) Coal gas Calorific value Composition ngi nee 5,000 kcal/kg 7,600 kcal/kg 8,500 kcal/kg C = 67%, H = 5%, O = 20%, ash = 8% C = 83%, H = 5·5%, O = 5%, ash = 6·5% C = 90%, H = 3%, O = 2%, ash = 5% 11,000 kcal/kg 11,000 kcal/kg 11,110 kcal/kg C = 86%, H = 12%, S = 2% C = 86·3%, H = 12·8%, S = 0·9% C = 86%, H = 14% 3 520 kcal/m 7,600 kcal/m3 rin g.n e CH4 = 84%, C2H6 = 10% Other hydrocarbons = 5% CH4 = 35%, H = 45%, CO= 8%, N = 6% CO2 = 2%, Other hydrocarbons = 4% 1.9 Advantages of Liquid Fuels over Solid Fuels t The following are the advantages of liquid fuels over the solid fuels : (i) The handling of liquid fuels is easier and they require less storage space. (ii) The combustion of liquid fuels is uniform. (iii) The solid fuels have higher percentage of moisture and consequently they burn with great difficulty. However, liquid fuels can be burnt with a fair degree of ease and attain high temperature very quickly compared to solid fuels. (iv) The waste product of solid fuels is a large quantity of ash and its disposal becomes a problem. However, liquid fuels leave no or very little ash after burning. (v) The firing of liquid fuels can be easily controlled. This permits to meet the variation in load demand easily. 1.10 Advantages of Solid Fuels over Liquid Fuels The following are the advantages of solid fuels over the liquid fuels : Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Principles of Power System 8 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) In case of liquid fuels, there is a danger of explosion. Liquids fuels are costlier as compared to solid fuels. Sometimes liquid fuels give unpleasant odours during burning. Liquid fuels require special types of burners for burning. Liquid fuels pose problems in cold climates since the oil stored in the tanks is to be heated in order to avoid the stoppage of oil flow. SELF-TEST 1. Fill in the blanks by inserting appropriate words/figures. (i) The primary source of energy is the ...................... (ii) The most important form of energy is the ......................... (iii) 1 kWh = ..................... kcal (iv) The calorific value of a solid fuel is expreessed in ...................... (v) The three principal sources of energy used for the generation of electrical energy are ........................ and ......................... 2. Pick up the correct words/figures from the brackets and fill in the blanks. (i) Electrical energy is ....................... than other forms of energy. (cheaper, costlier) (ii) The electrical, heat and mechanical energies ......................... be expressed in the same units. (can, cannot) (iii) ......................... continue to enjoy the chief source for the generation of electrical energy. (fuels, radioactive substances, water) (iv) The basic unit of energy is ......................... (Joule, watt) (v) An alternator is a machine which converts ......................... into .......................... (mechanical energy, electrical energy) ww w .Ea syE ngi nee ANSWERS TO SEL...
View Full Document

  • Spring '18

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask ( soon) You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes