20191115151724human_trafficking_doc.pdf - The author(s shown below used Federal funds provided by the U.S Department of Justice and prepared the

20191115151724human_trafficking_doc.pdf - The author(s...

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Unformatted text preview: The author(s) shown below used Federal funds provided by the U.S. Department of Justice and prepared the following final report: Document Title: The Nature and Extent of Gang Involvement in Sex Trafficking in San Diego County Author(s): Ami Carpenter, Ph.D., Jamie Gates, Ph.D. Document No.: 249857 Date Received: April 2016 Award Number: 2012-R2-CX-0028 This report has not been published by the U.S. Department of Justice. To provide better customer service, NCJRS has made this federally funded grant report available electronically. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. Project Title: The Nature and Extent of Gang Involvement in Sex Trafficking in San Diego County Award Number: NIJ- 2012-R2-CX-0028 Author(s): Ami Carpenter, PhD and Jamie Gates, PhD This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. The Nature and Extent of Gang Involvement in Sex Trafficking in San Diego County Final Report Submitted to United States Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice Grant No.: NIJ- 2012-R2-CX-0028 Prepared by Ami Carpenter, PhD Principal Investigator Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies University of San Diego 5998 Alcala Park, Suite 113 San Diego, CA 92110 Tel: (619) 260-7830 Email: [email protected] Jamie Gates, PhD Co-Investigator Department of Sociology and Social Work Pt. Loma Nazarene University 3900 Lomaland Drive
 San Diego, CA 92106 Tel: (619) 849-2659 Email: [email protected] Jan 2016 2 This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. 3 This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I. INTRODUCTION I.A BACKGROUND I.B KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS I.C STATE OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT GANG INVOLVEMENT IN SEX TRAFFICKING I.D MINING EXISTING AND REACHING INTO NEW DATA SOURCES I.E ACTION-BASED RESEARCH AND COMMUNITY COLLABORATION II. III. METHODS II.A SITE SELECTION: SAN DIEGO COUNTY AND BORDER REGION II.B SAN DIEGO COUNTY HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND CSEC ADVISORY COUNCIL II.C STUDY DESIGN: TRIANGULATION OF DATA FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES II.D DATA COLLECTION II.D.1. Survey Data on Victims from Freedom from Exploitation (FFE) II.D.2. Victims Intake Data from Social Service Providers (TVIT) II.D.3. Arrest and Booking Data from Law Enforcement Agencies II.D.4. Focus Groups in San Diego County High Schools II.D.5. Individuals Involved with or Knowledgeable about Sex Trafficking II.E Study Design Limitations II.E.1. Trafficking Victims Identification Tool (TVIT) II.E.2. Law Enforcement Data II.E.3. School Focus Group II.E.4. In-Depth Interviews with Incarcerated Individuals FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS III.A SCALE OF THE ILLICIT SEX ECONOMY IN SAN DIEGO 4 This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. IV. III.B TRAFFICKERS III.B.1. Scope of Sex Trafficking Facilitation III.B.2. Nature of Gang Involvement in Sex Trafficking III.C VICTIMS III.C.1. Profile of San Diego Victims III.C.2. Recruitment in San Diego High Schools DISCUSSION IV.A V. VI. VII. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS IV.B IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT PRACTICES IV.C FUTURE RESEARCH ON SEX TRAFFICKING AND GANGS REFERENCES TABLES AND FIGURES APPENDICES VII.A INTERVIEW GUIDELINE FOR FACILITATORS VII.B GLOSSARY OF TERMS VII.C GANG STRUCTURE ANALYSIS 5 This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. FOREWORD This project was conducted under Grant No. NIJ- 2012-R2-CX-0028 awarded by the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, United States Department of Justice. Points of view in this document are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the United States Government. SUGGESTED CITATION Carpenter, A. C. and Gates, J. (2016). The Nature and Extent of Gang Involvement in Sex Trafficking in San Diego County. San Diego, CA: University of San Diego and Point Loma Nazarene University. 6 This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research would not have been possible without the support, trust and collaboration of a wide range of San Diego leaders and community members. We are in particular grateful for the collaboration of those that partner under the banner of the San Diego County Regional Advisory Council on County Human and Child Sex Trafficking. In particular, the authors thank its partners and subcontractors for their support and hard work: the San Diego Sheriff’s Department, Freedom from Exploitation, San Diego County Schools and select school districts, SecDev Cyber, Bilateral Safety Corridor Coalition (BSCC), San Diego Youth Services (SDYS) STARS program, La Maestra Community Health Centers, GenerateHope, North County Lifeline, San Diego Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting Program (SANDAPP), Mary’s Guest House, and SDS Hope House. The authors are tremendously grateful for the hard work and patience of research assistants Lars Almquist, Sophie Callahan, Natalie Hsieh, and Tasi Rodriguez. Our research proposal and first year of work benefited tremendously from the contributions of Dr. Dana Nurge at San Diego State University. We thank Josette Ford and Laura Curtis at the San Diego Sheriff’s Department for their excellent analytical advice and continuous support to the research team. To the leaders of San Diego’s Human Trafficking Survivors Support Network and all of the survivors of human trafficking who shared parts of their story with us, we are eternally grateful. Finally, we give special recognition to Chief Deputy District Attorney Summer Stephan, for her guidance and wisdom in navigating the complex law enforcement system in San Diego County, and her unwavering support for anti-trafficking efforts in San Diego County. 7 This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK 8 This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION In 2011, San Diego County created the multi-agency San Diego County Regional Human Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Advisory Council with the objective to reduce human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children in San Diego County and the Mexico border region through prevention, prosecution, protection and partnerships. As co-chairs of the Research and Data Sub-Committee of this advisory council, Drs. Carpenter and Gates were asked to pursue a research agenda that would help develop robust measures of the scope of human trafficking in San Diego County. Of particular interest to the County Advisory Council was empirical evidence of the suspected relationship between gangs and human trafficking. BACKGROUND AND STUDY OBJECTIVES The overall purpose of this project was to investigate the nature and assess of the scope of gang involvement in sex trafficking in San Diego County. Human trafficking is a global phenomenon with a variety of local manifestations, including labor and sex trafficking. San Diego is ranked by the FBI as one of the nation’s 13 highest areas of commercial sexual exploitation of children. Despite widespread attention on sex trafficking, there has been little empirical research on the nature and process of sex trafficking activities, and even less on the connection between sex trafficking and gangs. Prior to this study, much of what was known about sex trafficking in San Diego County was anecdotal and descriptive. The study’s basic premise was that empirical investigation would prove useful for both policy and practice. This 3-year study reports on three major sets of findings: (1) the scope and nature of gang involvement in sex trafficking and commercial sexual activity, including detailed analysis of sex trafficking facilitation (2) the scope of nature of victimization in San Diego County, and (3) estimates of the regional commercial sex economy. It was designed to improve on seven shortcomings in human or sex trafficking research thus far: 1. Few credible estimates of the scale of sex trafficking in a particular region 9 This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. 2. The common conflation of commercial sexual exploitation and prostitution with sex trafficking 3. Lack of primary data on sex trafficking1 4. Inability to identify networks of sex traffickers 5. Understudied extent of gang involvement in sex trafficking 6. Over-reliance on qualitative methods 7. Small sample sizes METHODS AND DATA COLLECTION We used mixed-methods to gather data (qualitative and quantitative) from five major sources: (1) surveys conducted across ten years with 702 participants in a prostitution first offender diversion program, (2) standardized intake forms with 140 sex trafficking survivors conducted across our two year study window by eight nonprofits that provide direct services to human trafficking victims, (3) combined Police arrest records and Sheriff booking datasets, (4) focus groups with staff at 20 high schools in San Diego County, and (5) in depth interviews with gang affiliated individuals involved in or knowledgeable about sex trafficking. Data gathered from these five sources was collated into four major datasets: Survivor Services Dataset, Law Enforcement Reporting Dataset, Schools Dataset, and Facilitator2 Interview Dataset. Triangulation and analysis of these datasets generated quantitative and qualitative findings that shed light on the scale and complex challenges associated with Commercial Sexual Exploitation of People (CSEP)3, Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)4, and Commercial Sexual Activity (CSA) defined broadly as sex acts for compensation (monetary, other). 1 Studies often rely instead on secondary sources - newspaper reports and media investigations, or interviews with intermediaries: social service providers, counselors, law enforcement, victim advocates, pro bono attorneys, and others working with trafficking victims 2 Facilitator refers to the person/s using force, fraud or coercion for commercial sexual exploitation; collaborators who benefit financially; and all those involved in CSEC. 3 This term refers to all persons, regardless of age, who have been sexually exploited through the exchange of sex or sexual acts for drugs, food, shelter, protection, other basics of life, and/or money. CSEC is a subcategory of CSEP. 4 This term refers to the sexual abuse of a minor “entirely, or at least primarily, for financial or other economic reasons. The economic exchanges involved may be either monetary or non-monetary (i.e., for food, shelter, drugs).” Richard J. Estes & Neil Alan Weiner, Univ. of Pa., The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children In the U.S., Canada and Mexico 10 (rev. Feb. 20, 2002), avail- able at . 10 This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. FINDINGS Three main categories of findings emerged from this study: (1) estimates of the regional commercial sex economy, (2) the scope and nature of gang involvement in sex trafficking, and (3) the scope and nature of sex trafficking victimization. (1) ESTIMATES OF THE REGIONAL COMMERCIAL SEX ECONOMY We estimate the size of the illicit sex economy in San Diego County in 2013 at $810 million dollars. We reached this number by duplicating and modifying the methods used by the Urban Institute to estimate the size of the underground sex economy in San Diego California in their 2014 study, with two changes. First, we included two industries in our estimate of the cash economy in San Diego that Urban Institute had not – recreation and gambling – industries that intuition might naturally associate with cash spending. In brief, it may be that Dank et al. (2014) considerably underestimated the size of the cash stock in San Diego, which likely biases downward their estimates of the illicit sex economy, as well. Second, with data from 56 sex trafficking facilitators, including 46 incarcerated interviewees and 10 facilitators we interviewed in the community, we were able to generate more robust estimates of what sex trafficking facilitators earn. Whereas Urban Institute estimated trafficker earn $528,000 per year in San Diego, this study found that facilitators make on average $670,625 per year (based on the assumption that facilitators only take 75% of the revenue generated by each commercial act). 5 (2) SCOPE AND NATURE OF GANG INVOLVEMENT IN SEX TRAFFICKING Scope Evidence from 154 criminally involved persons, 140 victims of sex trafficking and 141 staff members of 20 high schools spread across San Diego County led us to discover 110 gangs in San Diego County from a wide variety of neighborhoods and racial/ethnic backgrounds that 5 50% is the most oft-cited percentage of sex worker earnings charged by sex facilitators. Some report as low as 15% or as high as 100%. 11 This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. have members that are engaged in profiting from sex trafficking in San Diego. The level of centralization and organization of sex trafficking activity among these gangs varies significantly from cliques and sets that loosely affiliate with the gang for protection while they act independently to centrally organized units with a centralized taxation system, even transnational criminal networks. Our interviews produced strong evidence that gangs in San Diego are engaged in the commercial sexual exploitation of people and children (CSEP and CSEC). Of our sample of persons in protective custody in San Diego County jails, 52.5% (76/139) identified or were identified with a street gang. We identified 33% (46/139) of those interviewed as sex trafficking facilitators, and 80% (37/46) of those that identified as sex trafficking facilitators affiliated with a gang. In all, we interviewed self-identified facilitators (46 in jail and 10 in the community), and only nine (16%) denied any gang affiliation. Organization There exist many types of relationships between individual facilitators and the gangs with which they affiliate. Relationships range from individuals selling sex on the side (with no involvement from – or profit to – their gang), small cliques of members (in some cases collaborating with other groups or individuals outside of gang), to significant proportion of members involved & the group or at least group leaders profit. In some cases, individuals not involved in gangs reported that they have working relationships with gangs or gang members. These relationships reflect different levels of organizational complexity. We drew a distinction between directed sex trafficking, defined as individual activities dictated by, and directly profiting, a gang and undirected sex trafficking, defined as individual activities not dictated by, and directly profiting, a gang. We found that facilitation in San Diego County was almost evenly split between directed and undirected: Out of 72 gang members (34 of whom were facilitators, and 38 of whom did not identify as facilitators but who had knowledge of how ‘pimping’ worked in their gang) 25 reported that ‘pimping’ was purely entrepreneurial (undirected), 29 reported that it was an operation taxed and/or organized by their gang, and 14 facilitators reported arrangements and understandings that represented both directed and undirected facilitation.6 Directed trafficking is positively and significantly associated with gangs 6 An additional 4 interviews were coded ‘inconclusive’ on this question. 12 This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. that have clear rules of conduct, and a promotion structure. Gang members’ use of violence is also positively and significantly associated with gang organizational complexity, specifically territoriality, duration, role differentiation, promotion, and tax structure. Race We encountered roughly equal numbers of White (34%) and Black (32%) facilitators of sex trafficking during interviews in the jails, with Hispanics coming in third (24%). In fact, the ratio of white to minority facilitators may be higher than is reported here given that our data does not account for the over-representation of Black and Hispanic inmates in California jails. Nor does the relatively even split between Black, Hispanic and White facilitators represent a complete picture. For example, in recent years, Somali gangs and Iraqi Chaldean groups have been indicted on sex trafficking charges, and Asian American and Native American gangs were under-represented in our dataset. Our data cannot extrapolate to percentages of all population groups given this under-representation of significant gang populations. Coerciveness The three most commonly used types of coercion reported by trafficking facilitators in our sample were: ● Economic Coercion (74%) Defined by a high percentage of earnings (50% or above) taken by facilitator. ● Psychological Coercion (57%) Defined as social and emotional isolation, induced emotional exhaustion, and degradation, including humiliation, denial of the victim's power, and name-calling.7 ● Chemical Coercion (42%) Refers to br...
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