matter.docx - In classical physics and general chemistry matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume[1 All everyday

matter.docx - In classical physics and general chemistry...

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In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume . [1] All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms , which are made up of interacting subatomic particles , and in everyday as well as scientific usage, "matter" generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles ) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons , or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound . [1] [2] Matter exists in various states (also known as phases ). These include classical everyday phases such as solid , liquid , and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma , Bose–Einstein condensates , fermionic condensates , and quark–gluon plasma . [3] Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons , and a surrounding "cloud" of
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Unformatted text preview: orbiting electrons which "take up space". [4] [5] However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature , which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions. In the Standard Model of particle physics , matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent "size" or " volume " in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions , some " point particles " known as fermions ( quarks , leptons ), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space....
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