Ethiopia DHS Final Report 2011.pdf - Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011 Central Statistical Agency Addis Ababa Ethiopia ICF International

Ethiopia DHS Final Report 2011.pdf - Ethiopia Demographic...

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Unformatted text preview: Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011 Central Statistical Agency Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ICF International Calverton, Maryland, USA March 2012 The 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS) is part of the worldwide MEASURE DHS project which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The survey was implemented by the Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency (CSA). The funding for the EDHS was provided by the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office (HAPCO), USAID, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the United Kingdom for International Development (DFID), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ICF International provided technical assistance through the MEASURE DHS project. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID. Additional information about the 2011 EDHS may be obtained from the Central Statistical Agency, P.O. Box 1143, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Telephone: (251) 111 55 30 11/111 15 78 41, Fax: (251) 111 55 03 34, E-mail: [email protected] Information about the MEASURE DHS project may be obtained from ICF International, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705, USA; Telephone: 301-572-0200, Fax: 301-572-0999, E-mail: [email protected], Internet: . Suggested citation: Central Statistical Agency [Ethiopia] and ICF International. 2012. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Calverton, Maryland, USA: Central Statistical Agency and ICF International. CONTENTS TABLES AND FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... ix FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................................... xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ..................................................................................................................... xvii MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL INDICATORS ....................................................................... xix CHAPTER 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7. 1.8 1.9 1.10 INTRODUCTION History, Geography, and Economy ............................................................................................1 Population ..................................................................................................................................3 Population and Health Policies ..................................................................................................4 Objectives of the 2011 EDHS Survey ........................................................................................5 Organization of the Survey ........................................................................................................6 Sample Design ...........................................................................................................................7 Questionnaires ...........................................................................................................................7 Listing, Pretest, Main Training, Fieldwork, and Data Processing ..............................................8 Anthropometry, Anaemia, and HIV Testing .............................................................................10 Response Rates.......................................................................................................................11 CHAPTER 2 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSEHOLD POPULATION 2.1 Household Environment ...........................................................................................................13 2.1.1 Drinking Water .........................................................................................................13 2.1.2 Household Sanitation Facilities................................................................................15 2.1.3 Housing Characteristics ...........................................................................................16 2.1.4 Household Possessions ..........................................................................................18 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Wealth Index ............................................................................................................................19 Population by Age and Sex ......................................................................................................20 Household Composition ...........................................................................................................21 Children’s Living Arrangements and Parental Survival............................................................22 Education of the Household Population ...................................................................................25 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.7 Child Labour .............................................................................................................................31 CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 School Attendance by Survivorship of Parents .......................................................25 Educational Attainment ............................................................................................26 School Attendance Ratios .......................................................................................28 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS Characteristics of Survey Respondents ...................................................................................35 Educational Attainment by Background Characteristics ..........................................................37 Literacy .....................................................................................................................................39 Exposure to Mass Media..........................................................................................................41 Employment .............................................................................................................................44 Occupation ...............................................................................................................................48 Type Of Women’s Employment ...............................................................................................50 Health Issues ...........................................................................................................................51 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.8.3 3.8.4 Use of Tobacco ........................................................................................................51 Alcohol Consumption ...............................................................................................52 Chewing Chat ..........................................................................................................53 Knowledge and Attitudes concerning Tuberculosis .................................................55 Contents • iii CHAPTER 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Current Marital Status ..............................................................................................................59 Polygyny ...................................................................................................................................60 Age at First Marriage................................................................................................................62 Age at First Sexual Intercourse ................................................................................................64 Recent Sexual Activity .............................................................................................................66 CHAPTER 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 iv • Contents INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY Data Quality ...........................................................................................................................110 Levels and Trends in Infant and Child Mortality .....................................................................111 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Current Use of Contraceptive Methods By Age.......................................................95 Trends in Contraceptive Use ...................................................................................97 Current Use of Contraception by Background Characteristics ................................................97 Source of Modern Contraceptive Methods ..............................................................................99 Informed Choice .......................................................................................................................99 Knowledge of the Fertile Period .............................................................................................100 Need and Demand for Family Planning .................................................................................101 Future Use of Contraception ..................................................................................................102 Exposure to Family Planning Messages ................................................................................102 Exposure to Specific Type of Family Planning Messages .....................................................105 Contact of Nonusers with Family Planning Providers ............................................................106 Contraceptive Discontinuation Rate.......................................................................................108 CHAPTER 8 8.1 8.2 FAMILY PLANNING Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods .....................................................................................93 Current Use of Contraceptive Methods....................................................................................95 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 FERTILITY PREFERENCES Desire for More Children ..........................................................................................................81 Desire to Limit Childbearing by Background Characteristics ...................................................83 Ideal Number of Children .........................................................................................................86 Mean Ideal Number of Children by Women’s Background Characteristics .............................88 Fertility Planning Status ...........................................................................................................89 Wanted Fertility Rates ..............................................................................................................90 CHAPTER 7 7.1 7.2 FERTILITY LEVELS, TRENDS, AND DIFFERENTIALS Current Fertility .........................................................................................................................69 Fertility Differentials by Background Characteristics ...............................................................71 Fertility Trends .........................................................................................................................72 Children Ever Born and Living .................................................................................................73 Birth Intervals ...........................................................................................................................74 Postpartum Amenorrhoea, Abstinence, and Insusceptibility ...................................................76 Menopause ..............................................................................................................................77 Age at First Birth ......................................................................................................................78 Teenage Pregnancy and Motherhood .....................................................................................79 CHAPTER 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY Early Childhood Mortality Rates ............................................................................111 Trends in Early Childhood Mortality .......................................................................111 Early Childhood Mortality Rates by Socioeconomic Characteristics .....................................112 Demographic Differentials in Infant and Child Mortality .........................................................114 Perinatal Mortality ..................................................................................................................115 High-Risk Fertility Behaviour ..................................................................................................117 CHAPTER 9 9.1 Antenatal Care .......................................................................................................................119 9.1.1 9.1.2 9.1.3 9.1.4 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.6 MATERNAL HEALTH Coverage of Antenatal Care ..................................................................................120 Number of ANC Visits, Timing of First Visit, and Source Where ANC Was Received........................................................................................................121 Components of Antenatal Care .............................................................................122 Informed of signs of pregnancy complications during pregnancy .........................124 Tetanus Toxoid Injections ......................................................................................................124 Place of Delivery ....................................................................................................................126 Assistance during Delivery .....................................................................................................127 Reasons for Not Delivering in a Health Facility .....................................................................128 Postnatal Care .......................................................................................................................129 Problems in Accessing Health Care ......................................................................................131 CHAPTER 10 CHILD HEALTH 10.1 10.2 Child’s Size at Birth ................................................................................................................135 Vaccination Coverage ............................................................................................................138 10.2.1 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 Trends in Vaccination Coverage ............................................................................................141 Acute Respiratory Infection ....................................................................................................142 Fever ......................................................................................................................................143 Diarrhoeal Disease.................................................................................................................146 10.6.1 10.6.2 10.6.3 10.7 10.8 Vaccinations Coverage by Background Characteristics ........................................140 Prevalence of Diarrhoea ........................................................................................146 Treatment of Diarrhoea..........................................................................................148 Feeding Practices during Diarrhoea ......................................................................150 Knowledge of ORS Packets ...................................................................................................152 Stool Disposal ........................................................................................................................153 CHAPTER 11 NUTRITION OF CHILDREN AND ADULTS 11.1 Nutritional Status of Children .................................................................................................156 11.1.1 11.1.2 11.1.3 11.1.4 11.2 Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding .........................................................................162 11.2.1 11.2.2 11.2.3 11.2.4 11.2.5 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 Measurement of Nutritional Status among Young Children ..................................156 Data Collection.......................................................................................................157 Measures of Children’s Nutritional Status .............................................................158 Trends in Children’s Nutritional Status ..................................................................161 Initiation of Breastfeeding ......................................................................................162 Breastfeeding Status by Age .................................................................................164 Duration of Breastfeeding ......................................................................................168 Types of Complementary Foods............................................................................169 Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) Practices.................................................171 Prevalence of Anaemia in Children........................................................................................173 Micronutrient Intake among Children .....................................................................................175 Iodisation of Household Salt ..................................................................................................179 Nutritional Status of Women and Men ...................................................................................180 Prevalence of Anaemia in Women.........................................................................................184 Prevalence of Anaemia in Men ..............................................................................................186 Micronutrient Intake among Mothers .....................................................................................186 Contents • v CHAPTER 12 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOUR 12.1 HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Transmission, and Prevention Methods ............................................190 12.1.1 12.1.2 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Knowledge of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV .......................................195 Attitudes towards People Living with HIV/AIDS .....................................................................196 Attitudes towards Refusing to Have Sex and Negotiating Safer Sex ....................................198 Adult Support for Education about Condoms for Children Age 12 14 ...................................200 Higher-Risk Sex .....................................................................................................................201 12.6.1 12.6.2 12.7 General HIV Testing ..............................................................................................206 HIV Counseling and Testing During Pregnancy ....................................................208 Male Circumcision ..................................................................................................................210 Self-Reporting of Sexually Transmitted Infections .................................................................211 Prevalence of Medical Injections ...........................................................................................213 HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Behaviour among Youth ..................................................215 12.11.1 12.11.2 12.11.3 12.11.4 12.11.5 12.11.6 12.12 12.13 12.14 Multiple Partners and Condom Use .......................................................................201 Transactional Sex ..................................................................................................205 Coverage of HIV Testing ........................................................................................................206 12.7.1 12.7.2 12.8 ...
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