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Unformatted text preview: HUMAN PERFORMANCE AND LIMITATIONS ATPL GROUND TRAINING SERIES I Introduction © CAE Oxford Aviation Academy (UK) Limited 2014 I All Rights Reserved Introduction This text book is to be used only for the purpose of private study by individuals and may not be reproduced in any form or medium, copied, stored in a retrieval system, lent, hired, rented, transmitted or adapted in whole or in part without the prior written consent of CAE Oxford Aviation Academy. Copyright in all documents and materials bound within these covers or attached hereto, excluding that material which is reproduced by the kind permission of third parties and acknowledged as such, belongs exclusively to CAE Oxford Aviation Academy. Certain copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the International Civil Aviation Organisation, the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). This text book has been written and published as a reference work to assist students enrolled on an approved EASA Air Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL) course to prepare themselves for the EASA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations. Nothing in the content of this book is to be interpreted as constituting instruction or advice relating to practical flying. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained within this book, neither CAE Oxford Aviation Academy nor the distributor gives any warranty as to its accuracy or otherwise. Students preparing for the EASA ATPL (A) theoretical knowledge examinations should not regard this book as a substitute for the EASA ATPL (A) theoretical knowledge training syllabus published in the current edition of ‘Part-FCL 1’ (the Syllabus). The Syllabus constitutes the sole authoritative definition of the subject matter to be studied in an EASA ATPL (A) theoretical knowledge training programme. No student should prepare for, or is currently entitled to enter himself/herself for the EASA ATPL (A) theoretical knowledge examinations without first being enrolled in a training school which has been granted approval by an EASA authorised national aviation authority to deliver EASA ATPL (A) training. CAE Oxford Aviation Academy excludes all liability for any loss or damage incurred or suffered as a result of any reliance on all or part of this book except for any liability for death or personal injury resulting from CAE Oxford Aviation Academy’s negligence or any other liability which may not legally be excluded. Printed in Singapore by KHL Printing Co. Pte Ltd ii I Introduction Title 1 010 Air Law 2 020 Aircraft General Knowledge 1 Subject Introduction Book I Textbook Series Airframes & Systems Fuselage, Wings & Stabilising Surfaces Landing Gear Flight Controls Hydraulics Air Systems & Air Conditioning Anti-icing & De-icing Fuel Systems Emergency Equipment 3 020 Aircraft General Knowledge 2 Electrics – Electronics Direct Current Alternating Current Basic Radio Propagation 4 020 Aircraft General Knowledge 3 Powerplant Piston Engines Gas Turbines 5 020 Aircraft General Knowledge 4 Instrumentation Flight Instruments Warning & Recording Automatic Flight Control Power Plant & System Monitoring Instruments 6 030 Flight Performance & Planning 1 Mass & Balance Performance 7 030 Flight Performance & Planning 2 Flight Planning & Monitoring 8 040 Human Performance & Limitations 9 050 Meteorology 10 060 Navigation 1 General Navigation 11 060 Navigation 2 Radio Navigation 12 070 Operational Procedures 13 080 Principles of Flight 14 090 Communications VFR Communications IFR Communications iii I Introduction I Introduction iv I Introduction Introduction I Contents ATPL Book 8 Human Performance and Limitations 1. Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. The Circulation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3. Oxygen and Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4. The Nervous System, Ear, Hearing and Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 5. The Eye and Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 6. Flying and Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 7. Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8. Information Processing, Human Error & the Learning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 9. Behaviour and Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 10. Cognition in Aviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 11. Sleep and Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 12. Individual Differences and Interpersonal Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 13. Communication and Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 14. Man and Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 15. Decision Making and Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 16. Human Factors Incident Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 17. Introduction to Crew Resource Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 18. Specimen Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 19. Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 20. Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 v I Introduction I Introduction vi Chapter 1 Basic Concepts The History of Human Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Relevance of Human Performance in Aviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Pilot and Pilot Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Aircraft Accident Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Flight Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The Most Significant Flight Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Safety Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Reason’s Swiss Cheese Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 The Five Elements of Safety Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Flight Safety/Threat and Error Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Undesired Aircraft States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Duties of Flight Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1 1 Basic Concepts 1 Basic Concepts Human Factors is about people: it is about people in their working and living environments, and it is about their relationship with equipment, procedures and the environment. Just as important, it is about their relationship with other people. It involves the overall performance of human beings within the aviation system. Human Factors seeks to optimize the performance of people by the systematic application of the human sciences, often integrated within the framework of system engineering. Its twin objectives can be seen as safety and efficiency. ICAO Human Factors Digest Number 1, 1989 2 1 Basic Concepts Basic Concepts 1 The History of Human Performance In November 1783 the first manned balloon voyage took place. Two men took off from the grounds of the Chateau de la Muette in Paris in a Montgolfier hot air balloon and landed 25 minutes later, having drifted five miles and reached a height of 3000 feet. The trouble was, and still is, that balloons are non-steerable and are dependent on the wind to provide their horizontal motive power. To overcome the non-steerability of balloons, it became obvious that a motive unit of some sort was needed to allow them to become a useful form of transport and the concept of the airship was formulated. It was not until 1852 that Henri Giffard was able to fly the first practical airship. Even at this early stage it was realized that the future of aviation lay not with balloons and airships but with heavier than air machines. The first powered aeroplane to fly was a model steam powered aircraft designed and built by John Stringfellow in 1848. The first manned flight of a heavier than air machine, and the beginning of modern aviation, took place at Kittyhawk in 1903 when Orville Wright made a flight of 12 seconds in the aptly named ‘Wright Flyer’. This short duration flight ushered in an era which has probably seen a greater number of scientific advances than any other period in history. With the aircraft came aircraft accidents. In the early decades of this century a great number of these accidents, indeed the majority, were caused by equipment failure or other factors outside the control of the operators. Over the last 30 to 40 years however the major cause of aircraft accidents has been human factors. Airframes have become more reliable, modern engines and associated equipment seldom fail, navigational equipment (both in the aircraft and on the ground) has improved in leaps and bounds, giving a degree of accuracy undreamt of by the early pioneers of flying. The improvement in the equipment available, allied with the advances in meteorological forecasting should have virtually eliminated aviation accidents except for the most freak conditions, but these accidents have not reduced at the rate one would expect from the advances of technology. The factor that has not changed is the human being. It is often seen in reports of aircraft accidents that the cause was ‘Pilot Error’ but, of course, a more correct reason would be ‘Human Error’. It is unfortunate that errors occur at all stages of an aircraft’s life. Designers may make small arithmetical slips which may not be picked up, servicing personnel can put the wrong fuel and lubricants into engines or fit components incorrectly, operations and loading staff do get the weights wrong but the major contributions to flight safety can be achieved by educating the operating crew. This publication is written to enable you, the future pilot, to appreciate the limitations of the human being in the aviation environment. Our bodies are designed to exist on the surface of the earth and a stable gravitational force. In aviation it is subject to new factors, among which are altitude, large changes in pressure, changes of gravitational forces, radiation and shortage of oxygen. In the purely physical sense you will need to learn how to recognize the symptoms of oxygen deficiency and the effects of high g-forces or large changes of temperature. You should gain an appreciation of the problems brought about by stress and time zone changes as well as 3 1 Basic Concepts 1 trying to organize sleep patterns which may be out of synchronisation with your internal body clock. Basic Concepts In addition to the physical problems associated with aviation you will need an appreciation of the psychological aspects of flying such as receiving information, assessing data, making decisions and carrying out the necessary actions to ensure the safe progress of your flight in all conditions. You will learn some of the ways in which mistakes occur and be able to reduce your personal errors to a minimum. As a crew member, you will be flying with many contrasting personalities some of whom may be from very different cultural backgrounds from yourself. If you are a member of a large airline, you will be meeting your fellow crew members mostly for the first time. It is vital that you become adept in recognizing these different personalties and be able to work with them as a successful member of the group. A continuing study of both CRM and Human Performance will be your basic tool but the development of successful interpersonal skills must be an ongoing personal aim. It is to be hoped that you will not have to face many emergencies in your flying career, except in the simulator, but to be forewarned is to be forearmed. Knowledge brings confidence and the following chapters are designed to increase your knowledge of yourself and your limitations. The layout of these notes is designed to match the syllabus as taught at CAE Oxford Aviation Academy. These notes should be used as a reference and a revision aid. They do not necessarily contain all the material which you will receive during the course. Students are urged to complete the revision questions at the end of each chapter as well as the multi-choice papers found at the end of these notes. Whereas every effort has been made to ‘compartmentalize’ the subject into different chapter headings, there is inevitable interchapter overlap. In these cases, repetition is used to highlight the common ground. 4 1 Basic Concepts Basic Concepts 1 The Relevance of Human Performance in Aviation Aviation in itself is not inherently dangerous but, like the sea, it is inordinately unforgiving of any carelessness, incapacity or neglect. Human Performance (sometimes referred to as Human Factors) is relevant wherever and whenever the human being is involved in aviation. Thus it plays a fundamental and vital role to promote efficiency and - above all else - safety in every facet of the aviation industry. It promotes: • • • • • • • • Safety and efficiency. Health, fitness and well-being. Operating skills. Awareness of the common areas of human error. Judgement and decision making. Leadership qualities. Crew coordination. Efficient design of: • • • • • Aircraft, cockpit, instrument and control layouts. Operating procedures. Checklists. Charts. Training procedures. • Efficient and comfortable working environments. • Efficient personnel selection. • Efficient communications. These can be summarized as the: Safety and efficiency of the operation and Well-being of the individual ICAO Requirement for the Study of Human Factors Since the inclusion of Amendment 159 of Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention, which came into force on 16th November 1989, ICAO has made the study of Human Factors a mandatory part of obtaining a professional pilot’s licence. 5 1 Basic Concepts 1 The Pilot and Pilot Training Basic Concepts Introduction The most flexible but the most error-prone component within aviation is the aircrew. Thus selection, training, maintenance of morale and monitoring of aircrews make the largest contribution to flight safety. The Competent Pilot When assessing the competency of a pilot a number of qualities are sought. Among the qualities that go towards making a safe, effective and competent pilot are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • A high sense of responsibility Ability (academic and flight handling) Motivation A good communicator Flexibility Physical fitness Reliability A balanced personality A team player Calmness under stress An eye for detail Competency in Risk Assessment Competency in the skills of Stress and Crew Managements Training There is a myriad of pilot training methods and techniques : Flight Simulator, Crew Resource Management (CRM), Line Oriented Flying Training (LOFT), Self-development, Leadership, Flight Safety, Survival and Correspondence courses are all available to aircrew. To ensure the future competency of pilots, courses should designed to be: • • • • • • Relevant Regular Clear and concise Time-efficient Participational Include course reading and revision material Self-training Self-training is a process aimed at developing specific skills, knowledge or attitudes. As pilots you will, throughout your careers, be subject to continuous and regular training. It is of fundamental importance that you do not rely solely on the formal training to maintain your aviation expertise. Every opportunity should be taken to increase your competency, knowledge and professionalism. Always self-debrief after every flight. Read, research, discuss and discover as much as you can of this enormous and fascinating field. As your competence and expertise increase so will your self-confidence. This, in turn, will arm you to tackle new aspects of your profession with enthusiasm and conviction. 6 1 Basic Concepts Basic Concepts 1 Aircraft Accident Statistics General Statistics play a fundamental role in accident analysis. It is only by the production of comprehensive and wide-ranging statistics that the root cause of accidents can be established. The Safety Data Department of the CAA regularly distribute a number of publications in this field of which Aviation Safety Review, Data Plus and Global Accident Review are but three. When compared with other forms of transportation, aviation has the best safety record (the risk of death per person per year in a car accident is 1 in 10 000 in the UK and 1 in 4000 in the USA). As can be seen from the graphs below – which we publish with the kind permission of Flight International - the aviation fatal accident rate over the last 10 years is approximately 1 per 1.2 million flights. Figure 1.1 By kind permission of Flight International 2012 was an exceptional year and has been dubbed as “the safest year yet” in which the rate dropped to 1 per 2.3 million flights. Unfortunately experts, at the time of printing, are generally of the opinion that it is expected that the rate will return to approximately the norm of 1 per 1.2 million flights in future years. It is of note that in 2012 almost all of the accidents were precipitated by pilot misjudgment or mismanagement. 7 1 Basic Concepts 1 Basic Concepts Figure 1.2 The sad fact is that accidents are still occurring. This is in spite of enormous technical advances in: • • • • • • • • • • • • Aircrew training and selection Aircraft manufacture and design Weather tracking and prediction Mechanical reliability Systems monitoring equipment Communications Accuracy and range of navigational equipment Cockpit and cabin layout Safety equipment Air Traffic Control expertise and capabilities Control and weather radar equipment Airfield lighting and facilities Even with all the above technical successes, and the overall standards of safety that have been achieved, the art and science of advanced aeronautics in all types of flying conditions are not yet fully perfected. Nor has the complex relationship between technological progress on the one hand, and human frailty on the other, been fully resolved. In aviation, perhaps more than in other fields of human endeavour, mankind remains as much a victim of himself as of the elements around him. Causes of Accidents - General Approximately 73% of all accidents are caused by Human factors. Historically this figure has not changed since the 1950’s. CFIT (Controlled Flight into Terrain) remains the most common general form of accident. 8 1 Basic Concepts 1 Causes of Accidents - Pilot Induced Basic Concepts The five most common specific causes of pilotinduced accidents, in order of frequency, are: • • • • Loss of directional control Poor judgement Airspeed not maintained Poor preflight planning and preflight  decision making • Not maintaining ground clearance The phases of flight most prone to accidents are, in order of precedence: • • • • Intermediate and Final Approach Landing Take-off Descent Figure 1.3 Causes of accidents Flight Safety Roles Played by the Various Aviation Participants in Flight ...
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