Carlson4_Gymnosperms - Gymnosperms Bio 1B Fall'07 Professor...

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1 Gymnosperms Bio 1B Fall ’07 Professor: Thomas Carlson 2 3 4 Gymnosperms: (Figs 30.4, 30.6) seed-containing vascular plants without flowers have pollen & complex leaves cycads (Cycadophyta) (Fig 30.4) ginkgos (Ginkgophyta) (Fig 30.4) conifers (Coniferophyta) (Fig 30.6) gnetophytes (Gnetophyta) (Fig 30.4) Angiosperms: (Fig 30.12) Flowering plants with pollen, seeds, & flowers vascular tissue complex leaves 5 Habitat Moisture and Fertilization Bryophytes & Pteridophytes more dependent on moist habitats sperm swim to accomplish fertilization Gymnosperms & Angiosperms less dependent on moist habitats sperm encased in pollen grains that are typically transported via wind and insect pollinators 6
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7 X X X Diploid Dominant X X Gametophyte dependent on sporophyte X animals & wind X mainly wind Pollination X X Gnetophytes Vessels X X X Tracheids X Double fertilization & Triploid Endosperm X X Antheridium X X X Archegonium X Flowers/Fruits X X Seeds X X Pollen X X X Aquatic ferns X Heterosporous X Independent sporophyte & gametophyte X X Water required for fertilization X Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte X Haploid Dominant X X X X Alternation of Generations Angiosperms Gymnosperms Pteridophytes Bryophytes [email protected] . edu 8/28/07 8 Adaptations to Life on Land by Gymnosperms Pollen Development: – pollen is a tiny male gametophyte that is mainly transmitted by wind or animals – this allows for fertilization to take place without the need of water Seed Development: protective casing around embryo that protects against desiccation & resists decay (Fig 30.3) 9 Seed Plants (Gymnosperms) Sporophyte is dominant Male gametophyte is reduced to a pollen grain Female gametophyte is reduced to a small egg- containing structure Both gametophytes obtain their nutrition from the sporophyte 10 Seed Plants (Gymnosperms) Pollen fertilizes egg to produce seeds Pollen grains are surrounded by protective sporopollenin This enables the male gametophyte to survive in dry environments and be transported to female gametophytes by wind, gravity, or animals
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