Carlson4_Gymnosperms - Gymnosperms Bio 1B Fall '07...

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1 Gymnosperms Bio 1B Fall ’07 Professor: Thomas Carlson 2 3 4 Gymnosperms: (Figs 30.4, 30.6) seed-containing vascular plants without flowers – cycads (Cycadophyta) (Fig 30.4) – ginkgos (Ginkgophyta) (Fig 30.4) – conifers (Coniferophyta) (Fig 30.6) – gnetophytes (Gnetophyta) (Fig 30.4) Angiosperms: (Fig 30.12) Flowering plants with – vascular tissue – complex leaves 5 Habitat Moisture and Fertilization • more dependent on moist habitats • sperm swim to accomplish fertilization • less dependent on moist habitats • sperm encased in pollen grains that are typically transported via wind and insect pollinators 6
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7 X X X Diploid Dominant X X Gametophyte dependent on sporophyte X mainly wind Pollination X X Gnetophytes Vessels X X X Tracheids X Triploid Endosperm X X Antheridium X X X Archegonium X Flowers/Fruits X X Seeds X X Pollen X X X Aquatic ferns X Heterosporous X Independent gametophyte X X Water required for fertilization X Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte X Haploid Dominant X X X X Alternation of Generations Angiosperms Gymnosperms Pteridophytes Bryophytes tcarlson@berkeley . edu 8/28/07 8 Adaptations to Life on Land by Gymnosperms Pollen Development: – pollen is a tiny male gametophyte that is mainly transmitted by wind or animals – this allows for fertilization to take place without the need of water Seed Development: protective casing around embryo that protects against 9 Seed Plants (Gymnosperms) • Sporophyte is dominant • Male gametophyte is reduced to a pollen grain • Female gametophyte is reduced to a small egg- containing structure • Both gametophytes obtain their nutrition from the sporophyte 10 Seed Plants (Gymnosperms) • Pollen fertilizes egg to produce seeds Pollen grains are surrounded by protective sporopollenin • This enables the male gametophyte to survive in dry environments and be transported to female gametophytes by wind, gravity, or animals
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Carlson4_Gymnosperms - Gymnosperms Bio 1B Fall '07...

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