Carlson5_Angiosperms1 - Angiosperms#1 Bio 1B Fall'07...

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1 Angiosperms #1 Bio 1B Fall ’07 Professor: Thomas Carlson 2 3 4 5 X X X Diploid Dominant X X Gametophyte dependent on sporophyte X animals & wind X mainly wind Pollination X X Gnetophytes Vessels X X X Tracheids X Double fertilization & Triploid Endosperm X X Antheridium X X X Archegonium X Flowers/Fruits X X Seeds X X Pollen X X X Aquatic ferns X Heterosporous X Independent sporophyte & gametophyte X X Water required for fertilization X Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte X Haploid Dominant X X X X Alternation of Generations Angiosperms Gymnosperms Pteridophytes Bryophytes [email protected] . edu 8/28/07 6
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7 8 9 10 11 12 ANGIOSPERM LIFE CYCLE (Fig 30.10) Flowering Plant Flower Carpel (megasporophyll) Ovule (megasporangium) Megasporocyte = Mother cell = Diploid precursor cell Megaspore Megagametophyte (7 cells with 8 nuclei) Egg with 2 synergid cells near micropyle Two polar nuclei cell Egg (ovum) Flowering Plant Flower Stamen (microsporophyll) Anther with 4 chambers (4 microsporangia) Microsporocyte = Father cell = Diploid precursor cell Microspore Microgametophyte (2 celled pollen grain with 1 vegetative cell & 1 generative cell) Pollen tube develops from vegetative cell & 2 sperm develop from generative cell Sperm
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13 Angiosperms (enclosed seed) • Pollen Double fertilization Triploid endosperm Ovules in flowers enclosed by carpel Seeds in fruits enclosed by carpel Xylem contains vessel elements & fibers Phloem contains companion cells Complex leaves 14 Importance of flowering plants Most species rich group of plants ( at least 250,000 ) Source of most human food Rice, wheat, and corn are fruits of angiosperms 15 Diversity in angiosperms Eucalyptus trees 100s of feet tall Aquatic duckweed 1 mm in diameter Epiphytes Non-photosynthetic parasites Insectivorous plants 16 Gymnosperm (naked seed) (Figs 30.3, 30.6) Gymnosperm ovules are naked & exposed to air when the ovuliferous scales of conifers separate to let pollen in Angiosperms (enclosed seed) (Fig 30.10, 38.7, 38.8, 38.9) Ovules surrounded by sporophytic tissues which create a barrier to outside world Sperm reach eggs via pollen tubes growing through parental sporophyte tissue 17 Angiosperms Double fertilization (Fig 30.10, 38.6 Campbell) One sperm fertilizes egg to form zygote Other sperm joins with two nuclei in the megagametophyte to form triploid (3n) tissue called endosperm • The triploid endosperm becomes the source of nutrients for the developing embryo 18
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19 Major Angiosperm Clades (Fig 30.12) (Judd et al., 2002) Basal Families (pollen usually monocolpate) usually have monocolpate pollen grains with single long grooved aperture some lack vessels or have primitive vessels Magnoliid Complex Monocots (monocolpate pollen) Eudicots (tricolpate pollen) (tricolpate pollen grains have 3 long grooved apertures, each with a central pore) 20 21 Primitive Angiosperm Clades (Fig 30.12) Basal Families = earliest flowering plants ( pollen usually monocolpate with one furrow or pore Amborellaceae (1 species in New Caledonia & it lacks
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