Carlson7_StructureFunctionHormones

Carlson7_StructureFunctionHormones - Germination...

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1 Plant Form & Function Bio 1B, Fall ’07 Professor Carlson 2 Germination Germination begins with the uptake of water by the seed which activates enzymes that breakdown stored proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules to be used by growing regions Gibberellic Acid is a hormone hormone that supports seed germination When the radicle (root) emerges from the seed and begins to push into the ground, germination is complete Seedling is established when photosynthesis commences 3 Germination Gibberrelic Acid hormone supports seed germination Abscisic Acid hormone inhibits seed germination and supports seed dormancy 4 5 Primary plant body morphology (Figs. 35.2, 35.8, 35.10, 35.11, 35.12, 35.15, 35.18, 35.29 Lab manual Figs. 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5) •Primary growth results in increase in length of stem axis Growth initiated at tips (root & shoot apical meristems) Apical meristems –at tips of shoots & roots –zones of high cell mitotic division activity & new cell production Shoot apical meristems produce lateral appendages (leaves & axillary buds) Axillary buds produce lateral shoots or branches that have their own meristem at their tips and grow very much like the primary shoot axis 6 Plant Hormones/Chemical Communication (Table 39.1) Auxin (indole acetic acid) (Campbell Table 39.1, Fig 39.7) Apical dominance by supporting activity of apical meristems Phototropism (shoot growth) Gravitropism (root growth) Stem/cell elongation (Fig. 39.8)
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7 Plant Hormones/Chemical Communication (Table 39.1) Gibberellic Acid (Table 39.1, 39.10-11) Seed germination (Fig. 39.11) Bud germination Stem elongation Flowering/Fruiting (Fig. 39.10) ( Gibberellic Acid was originally isolated from the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi, which is a plant pathogen on rice that resulted in unusually long shoots) 8 9 10 11 12
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13 14 Shoot (Fig 35.2, 35.8, 35.10, 35.11, 35.15, Lab Manual Figs 4.1, 4.3) Terminal bud Lateral buds Node: site of lateral buds on shoot Internode: distance between two nodes 15 Plant Hormones/Chemical Communication (Table 39.1) Cytokinins (Table 39.1, Fig. 39.9) Promote cell division & lateral bud outgrowth Inhibit leaf senescence 16 Stem elongation supported by following hormones: • Gibberellic Acid • Auxin • Brassinosteroids 17 Stem elongation inhibited by following hormones: • Abscisic Acid • Ethylene 18
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19 Leaf (Fig 35.2, 35.5b, 35.6, 35.7, 35.8, 35.17, 35.29) Leaf: Blade with petiole (leaf stalk) Celery: the petiole is the edible plant part Lettuce: the blade of the leaf is the edible plant part Wide variety of leaf shapes & sizes in response different environments Leaf blade is primary site of photosynthesis 20 Leaf Abscision Promoted by ethylene Inhibited by brassinosteroids 21 22 Leaf (Fig 35.2, 35.5b, 35.6, 35.7, 35.8, 35.17, 35.29) Features of photosynthetic leaves: epidermis (outer covering layer) consists of specialized guard cells –internal parenchyma cells which compose main photosynthetic region vascular tissue (“veins”) specialized for transport of water & photosynthate 23 Leaf Cuticle Cuticle (Fig 35.17) : matrix of cross-linked lipid molecules impregnated with extremely long-chained lipids functions as a protective layer around the outside of the leaf 24
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