Chapter 2 Reading Notes - Chapter 2 Outline General...

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Chapter 2 Outline – General Chemistry 8 th Edition Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure o Atomic Theory of Matter Postulates of Dalton's Atomic Theory Atomic theory : an explanation of the structure of matter in terms of different combinations of very small particles All matter (elements, compounds, chemical reactions) is composed of atoms o Atom : an extremely small particle of matter that retains its identity during chemical reactions o Element : a type of matter composed of only one kind of atom with identical properties o Compound : a type of matter composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions o Chemical reaction : the rearrangement of the atoms present in the reacting substances to create new chemical substances Atomic Symbols and Models Atomic symbol : a one- or two-letter notation used to represent an atom corresponding to a particular element Some elements are represented by letters from their Latin names (gold, sodium, etc.) Deductions from Dalton's Atomic Theory Law of multiple proportions : when two elements form more than one compound, the masses of one element in these compounds for a fixed mass of the other element are in ratios of small whole numbers 1.3321 g of O2 reacts with 1.00 g C to form CO 2.6642 g of O2 reacts with 1.00 g C to form CO2 (2.6642/1.3321=2 for a 2:1 ratio) o The Structure of the Atom Atoms consist of particles Nucleus : the atom's central core, which is positively charged and contains most of the atoms mass Election : a very light, negatively charged particle that exists in the region around the atom's positively charged nucleus Discovery of the Electron Thomson's cathode ray experiment Coulomb (C): unit of electricity The Nuclear Model of the Atom
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