Power6b_PopulationBiology - Unitary vs Modular organisms...

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1 Unitary vs Modular organisms Unitary organisms develop from zygote to adult with determinant form Modular organisms grow by repeated interations of its parts (modules) into an adult of indeterminate form (coral, poison oak) Genet: genetic individual, all the biomass that derived from single embryo Ramet: subunit of genet that is physiologically viable as an autonomous fragment 2 Currencies: energy, nutrients, time growth maintenance activity Reproduction: offspring quality offspring quantity Allocation? unitary modular 3 Life history trade offs Life history trade offs of plants or animals Starting growth early in the season entails risk of freezing If reproductive resources allocated to larger seeds, plant makes fewer, so incurs more predation risk, and risk of bad luck (unfavorable microsites) • Dispersal: reduces competition with parent, but increases risk of unsuitable habitat. Bet hedging by sea rocket—half the seed pod floats, half sinks 4 Life history tradeoffs Allocation to reproduction comes at expense of individual’s own growth, and possibly survival (and vice versa) If resources are stored rather than spent on offspring, a plant can quickly replace tissue lost to grazing, fire, wind, and can survive over periods of starvation (e.g. deciduous trees in winter) Fig 52.6, Campbell 5 Trade-offs 6 Population biology Demography : study of how the vital rate of individuals (birth, death, growth) affect structure and dynamics of populations Population : group of potentially interbreeding individuals
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