Power8_FoodWebsChains - Mutualism leaf cutter ants(Atta spp...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Mutualism (+,+) leaf cutter ants (Atta spp ) culture fungi (Ignacio Chapela, ESPM) Mark Moffett photos 2 Minors defend workers from parasitic phorid flies Herbivory/fungivory: leaf cutter ants 3 Fungal garden in underground chamber of ant colony Young queen carries bit of fungus to start new colony 4 Mutualisms (+,+) 5 Extrafloral nectaries on Acacia feed ants that protect the Acacia trees from herbivores and vines 6 Clown fish live in mutualistic symbiosis with sea anemone Clown fish mucus protects it from anemone sting, and clown fish feeding imports crumbs that feed anemone
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
7 3 species interactions: Mutualists and cheaters…. Cleaner wrasses, host fish, cheater blennies Milkweed, bee, cheater orchid Pollinator, moth, bumblebee nectar burglar Selection for refinement of cues and mimicry in co-evolutionary race How much cheating can be tolerated before mutualism breaks down? 8 Taxon 2 species Lump all organisms into ‘trophic levels’ Focus on particular species whose strong interactions limit important populations 9 Community : a group of species that co-occur in time and space Food (interaction) webs depict feeding (or other significant (e.g. population limiting or regulating)) relationships among members of a community Interaction webs, food webs, food chains Some of these interactions are strong, others are weak. System : group of entities united by interaction or interdependence to form or act as an entire unit How to simplify for study? 10 Sometimes strong effects are mediated through food chains. Hairston, Slobodkin and Smith (1960): “The world is green because predators hold herbivores in check.” (assumes a 3 level food chain) + + + - - 11 Fretwell (Kansas) : world might have more or fewer than 3 trophic levels: Odd numbers ! Green Even numbers ! Barren Levels: 1 2 3 4 12
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern