Power12_EcosystemFluxesFragmentation - Ecosystem fluxes and...

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1 Ecosystem fluxes and cycles • H 2 O, C, P, and N cycles Ecosystem “efficiency” Organism efficiency Trophic level efficiency Toxins and bioaccumulation Water management issues 2 Campbell, p. 1209 CO 2 NH 4 + NO 3 - CO (NH 2 ) 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 (Organic compounds contain C and H) Available to biota Unavailable Inorganic Material Cycling 3 Carbon cycle (Campbell p. 1211) 4 Unavailable until mined 5 Phosphorus cycle, Cambell p. 1212. No gaseous, atmospheric component 6 Nitrogen cycle, Campbell p. 1211—more complex than P
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7 Human activities (fossil fuel combustion, synthetic fertilizers, cultivation of legumes, industrial meat production) have more than doubled the natural input rate of fixed (bioavailable) nitrogen (Vitousek 1997). The Nitrogen Cycle 8 Billions of grams/y 9 V. Smil 1997. Scientific American. Curious fate of Franz Haber* German chemist, awarded Nobel Prize 1919 for ammonia synthesis. Haber-Bosch synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen, combined at high temps and pressures ! explosives for WWI but world fertilizers soon thereafter, allowing human population to exceed 6 billion….
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