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Power12_EcosystemFluxesFragmentation - Ecosystem fluxes and...

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1 Ecosystem fluxes and cycles • H 2 O, C, P, and N cycles Ecosystem “efficiency” Organism efficiency Trophic level efficiency Toxins and bioaccumulation Water management issues 2 Campbell, p. 1209 CO 2 NH 4 + NO 3 - CO (NH 2 ) 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 (Organic compounds contain C and H) Available to biota Unavailable Inorganic Material Cycling 3 Carbon cycle (Campbell p. 1211) 4 Unavailable until mined 5 Phosphorus cycle, Cambell p. 1212. No gaseous, atmospheric component 6 Nitrogen cycle, Campbell p. 1211—more complex than P
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7 http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/9s.html Human activities (fossil fuel combustion, synthetic fertilizers, cultivation of legumes, industrial meat production) have more than doubled the natural input rate of fixed (bioavailable) nitrogen (Vitousek 1997). The Nitrogen Cycle 8 Billions of grams/y 9 V. Smil 1997. Scientific American. Curious fate of Franz Haber* German chemist, awarded Nobel Prize 1919 for ammonia synthesis. Haber-Bosch synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen, combined at high temps and pressures ! explosives for WWI but world fertilizers soon thereafter, allowing human population to exceed 6 billion….
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