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What is Hackman and Oldham Job CharacteristicsModel?The Job Characteristics Model is a theory that is based on the idea that atask in itself is the key to the employee’s motivation. In short, a boringand monotonous job is disastrous to an employee’s motivation whereas achallenging, versatile job has a positive effect on motivation.- Advertisement -The theory specifies five job characteristics that are predicted to benefitindividuals’ psychological state and job results. The theory alsoencompasses individual variables that may function as moderators torepresent the relationship between the job characteristics and outcomevariables.Work redesign began in the 60s and is aimed at restructuring tasks andresponsibilities to make employees more motivated. The idea arose toenrich jobs in ways that would boost motivation instead of merelysimplifying the job characteristics to a series of repetitive tasks. The JobCharacteristics Model arose from this point of view. In 1980, RichardHackmanand Greg Oldhampresented the definitive form of the JobCharacteristics Model in their book ‘Work Redesign’. They also created theinstruments Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) and the Job Rating Form (JRF) forassessing constructions based on the theory.
The DesignAccording to the definitive version of the Job Characteristics Model, fivecore job characteristics were to invoke three psychological states inemployees. These five characteristics lead to a lot of favourable personaland work results. The moderators must moderate the connectionsbetween the job characteristics and psychological states, and between thepsychologicalstatesandtheoutcomes.Hackman and Oldham define the five job characteristics as follows:Skill VarietySkill variety refers to the degree to which a job demands different