Intro to Neuro.pdf - Neuroscience Nihan Alp Ph.D...

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Neuroscience Nihan Alp, Ph.D. Sabancı University PSY201
What is Neuroscience?
What is Neuroscience? A scientific study of how the Nervous System carries out its function
What is Neuroscience?
PNS and CNS exchange information through the afferent and efferent nerves. Afferent (sensory) nerves : from sensory organs to CNS Efferent (motor) nerves : from CNS to sensory organs The autonomic nervous system (ANS): regulates the body’s internal environment. It is composed of both afferent and efferent nerves. Sympathetic nerves: Its general action is to mobilize the body's fight-or-flight response. Parasympathetic nerves: Its general function is to control homeostasis and the body's rest-and-digest response. The somatic nervous system (SNS): control voluntary muscle (acetylcholine).
Fundamental goal of neuroscience Understand the relationship between operation of the Mind & Brain neurophysiology Attention Memory Language Emotion Senses and their integration Perception
Goals of Neuroscience Understand the mechanisms by which the brain/nervous system carries out all functions (sensory processing, cognition, motor functions etc.) Understand what failures in those mechanisms lead to particular disorders of the brain Develop treatments for those disorders in order to restore function
Fundamental Question How does conscious thought arise from the electrical signaling that occurs between neurons?
History of the Brain
Hippocrates describe epilepsy as a disease of the brain. (430 B.C.) Before that epilepsy was considered as a disease of the spirit. Claudius Galen studies the brain with direct observation and experimentations (177 A.D.)
Views of the Brain During the Roman Empire Claudius Galen studies the brain with direct observation and experimentations (177 A.D.) Hmm, soft… Hmm, hard… Must command the muscles Must be a seat for sensation and perception
“If learning the truth is the scientist’s goal… then he must make himself the enemy of all that he reads. ” Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham is one of the first practitioners of hypothesis driven science (1021 A.D.) “Alhazen” experimented to prove that we see because light from objects travels in a straight line into our eyes.
Hippocrates describe epilepsy as a disease of the brain. (430 B.C.) Before that epilepsy was considered as a disease of the spirit. Clauidus Gallen studies the brain with direct observation and experimentations (177 A.D.) Ibn al-Haytham is one of the first practitioners of hypothesis driven science (1021 A.D.) Mansur’s Anatomy; one of the first written anatomy textbook authored in Persia (1390 A.D.).
The Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci 1508 Andreas Vesalius 1543 Berengario da Carpi 1523

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