ch8 - cognition thinking gaining knowledge and using...

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- cognition – thinking, gaining knowledge, and using knowledge o begins with focusing on something (attending to it) and determining what it is (categorization) - 3D blocks and rotating them - the more the object needed to be rotated, the longer they took to determine the answer o viewing a mental image is at least partly like real vision o however, the main point is that it is possible for researchers to infer thought processes from someone’s delay in answering a question - attention – your tendency to respond to some stimuli more than others at any given time or to remember some more than others o attention shifts, enabling you to respond to different kinds of information at different times o when you increase your attention to something in your visual field, the part of your visual cortex sensitive to that area becomes more active and receives more blood flow o so attention is a process of increasing the brain’s response to selected stimuli o our conscious memory is virtually limited to the material that has held attention - seeing or hearing your own name or seeing your photograph is almost sure to attract your attention - your attention also flows to moving objects and to anything unusual - pre-attentive process – meaning that it stands out immediately; we don’t have to shift attention from one object to another - when an object differs drastically from those around it in size, shape, color, or movement - attentive process- one that requires searching through the items in series o where’s waldo books o when we search through a complex display for an item that is hard to find, we shift the brain’s responsiveness from one area of the display to another - Stroop effect – the tendency to read the word, instead of saying the color of ink as instructed o You might imagine that words always take priority over colors o Easy to point to the patch that matches the color of the ink and harder to point to the color matching the word meaning o When you are speaking, you are primed to read the words you used, but when you are pointing, you are more primed to attend to something nonverbal, such as ink color o In either case one response dominates, and it interferes with the less dominant response - Change blindness – the frequent failure to detect changes in parts of a scene o Movie directors discovered long ago that if they shot different parts of a story on different days, few viewers noticed the changes in background props or the actors’ clothes o You especially unlikely to notice if your working memory is occupied with other matters
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- Overall, the apparent conclusion is that you do not maintain a detailed representation of what you see or hear - You hold a few details, but those details vary from one time to another - That’s what we mean by attention - You retain the gist of the rest of the scene but not the details - Walk and chew come at the same time – usually synchronized - If you write with one hand while tapping the other in time with a song, the faster
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