Service Strategy \u8bcd\u5178.pdf - vi | List of figures Figure 3.35 Service packages can consist of multiple individual services of any type 98 Figure 3.36

Service Strategy u8bcdu5178.pdf - vi | List of figures...

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Unformatted text preview: vi | List of figures Figure 3.35 Service packages can consist of multiple individual services of any type 98 Figure 3.36 Service packages can contain other service packages 99 Figure 3.37 Perceptions of utility and customer satisfaction 103 Figure 4.11 Prioritizing strategic investments based on customer needs 160 Figure 4.12 Expansion into adjacent market spaces 162 Figure 4.13 Expansion within single customers and market spaces 163 Figure 4.14 The service portfolio 173 Figure 3.38 Service economic dynamics for external service providers 106 Figure 4.15 The service catalogue and linkages between services and outcomes 174 Figure 3.39 Service economic dynamics for internal service providers 107 Figure 4.16 Service catalogue and demand management 175 Figure 3.40 Single business impact can affect multiple business objectives 110 Figure 4.17 Service portfolio and service catalogues 176 Figure 3.41 Multiple business impacts can affect a single business objective 111 Figure 4.18 Phases of service portfolio management 180 Figure 3.42 Post-programme ROI approach 115 Figure 3.43 Forecast analysis 116 Figure 3.44 The service sourcing staircase 121 Figure 3.45 Using service provider interfaces 122 Figure 3.46 Example of a value network 126 Figure 3.47 Existing flowchart of how the service desk was supposed to work 128 Figure 3.48 Value net exchanges showing how things really worked 129 Figure 4.1 Overall business strategy and the strategies of business units 134 Figure 4.2 The scope of strategy management 135 Figure 4.3 The strategy management process 138 Figure 4.4 Strategic industry factors and competitive positions in playing fields 143 Strategic analysis of customer portfolio 144 Strategic options for the service provider 145 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 Variety-based (left) and needs-based (right) positioning 150 Figure 4.8 Access-based positioning Figure 4.9 Combining variety-based, needs-based and access-based positioning Figure 4.10 Critical success factors leveraged across market spaces 8888-TSO-ITIL-Service Strategy f1-Pre-Ch1.indd 6 151 151 Figure 4.19 The service portfolio management process 182 Figure 4.20 Option spaces (tomato garden example) 187 Figure 4.21 The option space tool for IT service management 188 Figure 4.22 How executives allocate budget to strategic categories of service 189 Figure 4.23 An internal service provider focused on maintaining services (RTB) 189 Figure 4.24 An external service provider focused on expanding the scope of services (TTB) 190 Figure 4.25 Major inputs, outputs and activities of financial management for IT services 207 Figure 4.26 Cost by IT organization 210 Figure 4.27 Cost by service 211 Figure 4.28 Cost by customer 213 Figure 4.29 Cost by location 214 Figure 4.30 Hybrid cost model (service, customer, location) 215 Figure 4.31 Example of cost centres and cost units 218 Figure 4.32 Cost types and cost elements 219 Figure 4.33 A cost can be classified as direct or indirect in different cost models 221 155 11/07/2011 13:36 List of figures | Figure 4.34 Example – fixed and variable costs in a printing service 225 Figure 4.35 Common depreciation methods 226 Figure 4.36 Translation of cost account data to service account information 228 Figure 4.37 Examples of budget deviation analysis 229 Figure 4.38 Cost units and chargeable items 237 Figure 4.39 Tight coupling between demand, capacity and supply 247 Figure 4.40 Examples of patterns of business activity 249 Figure 4.41 Business activity influences patterns of demand for services 251 Figure 4.42 Example of activity-based demand management 252 Figure 4.43 Business relationship management activities 267 Figure 5.1 Strategy, policy and plan 285 Figure 5.2 Governance activities 286 Figure 5.3 Governance and management activities 287 Figure 5.4 Governance bodies 289 Figure 5.5 Using strategy to achieve balance 291 Figure 5.6 Enterprise architecture, strategy and service management 293 Strategy for organizations in trouble 297 Figure 5.8 Dealing with repeated trouble 297 Figure 5.9 Strategy for organizations in growth mode Figure 5.7 Figure 5.10 Strategy for organizations planning radical change Figure 6.1 299 The centralized-decentralized spectrum 318 Stages of organizational development 319 Figure 6.4 Services through network 320 Figure 6.5 Services through direction 320 8888-TSO-ITIL-Service Strategy f1-Pre-Ch1.indd 7 321 Figure 6.7 Services through coordination 321 Figure 6.8 Services through collaboration 322 Figure 6.9 Three-step change process 323 Figure 6.10 Matching strategic forces with organizational development 324 Figure 6.11 Organizational design steps 325 Figure 6.12 Strategic components of a logical organization structure for an IT service provider 326 Figure 6.13 Strategic, tactical and operational components of an IT service provider’s logical organization structure 327 Figure 6.14 Linkage between customers and the service provider’s logical organization structure 328 Figure 6.15 Chief sourcing officer – an example 336 Figure 7.1 Services as socio-technical systems with people and processes as pivots 343 Degrading effect of variation in service processes 345 Figure 7.3 The flow from data to wisdom 345 Figure 7.4 The critical role of service interfaces 347 Types of service technology encounters (Froehle and Roth, 2004) 348 Example of a simple analytical model for the service desk 351 Figure 7.7 Simple LP model 352 Figure 7.8 Simple network model 352 Figure 8.1 Strategic planning and control process (Simons, 1995) 355 Design constraints driven by strategy 359 Figure E.1 The M_o_R framework 404 Figure E.2 ISO 31000 risk management process flow 405 ISACA Risk IT process framework 407 Figure 7.2 Figure 7.5 298 317 Figure 6.3 Services through delegation Figure 7.6 Organizational value creation cycle Figure 6.2 Figure 6.6 vii Figure 8.2 Figure E.3 11/07/2011 13:36 List of tables Table 2.1 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 The processes described in each core ITIL publication 28 Differences between internal and external customers 43 Differences between services and manufactured products 48 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Differences between outputs and outcomes 50 Table 3.4 Types of IT service 52 Table 3.5 Examples of core, enabling and enhancing services Table 3.6 Table 3.7 Table 3.8 Table 3.9 Examples of utility and warranty statements Table 4.4 53 63 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Questions to assess existing services as differentiators 139 Customer data inputs for creating objectives 146 Examples of service management patterns 157 Budgeting, IT accounting and charging cycles 202 Examples of capital and operational costs 222 Example of indirect cost rate calculation 223 Examples of fixed and variable costs 224 Investment strategies for utility and warranty 65 Table 4.8 Examples of how service potential is increased Comparison of demand management and capacity management 246 77 Table 4.9 Customer decisions on service provider types 86 User profiles matched with patterns of business activity (example) Table 3.10 Defining actionable service components 96 Table 3.11 User segmentation and user packages 102 Table 3.12 The Kano model and service attributes (after Kano et al., 1984) 103 Table 4.10 Differences between business relationship management and service level management 250 258 Table 4.11 Business relationship management process activities and other service management processes 258 Table 4.12 What satisfies customers and users? 264 108 Table 4.13 Customer tasks, outcomes and constraints 266 Table 3.15 Common business objectives 109 Table 5.1 Table 3.16 NPV decisions 112 Table 3.13 The Kano evaluation table (Kano et al., 1984) 105 Table 3.14 Sample business case structure Table 3.17 Example of NPV of a proposed service management programme 113 Table 3.18 Types of cash flow 113 Table 3.19 Example of the IRR of a proposed service management programme 309 Table 6.1 Basic organizational structures 325 Table 6.2 Examples of sourcing roles and responsibilities 337 An example of a simple RACI matrix 338 Table 7.1 Instrumentation techniques 346 Table 7.2 Event management techniques 346 Table 9.1 Measurement principles 366 Table A.1 Present value of an annuity 377 Table 6.3 114 Table 3.20 Main sourcing structures (delivery strategies) 120 Table 3.21 Service strategy inputs and outputs by lifecycle stage 130 8888-TSO-ITIL-Service Strategy f1-Pre-Ch1.indd 8 Differences between complianceand maturity-based assessments 11/07/2011 13:36 Foreword Back in the 1980s no one truly understood IT service management (ITSM), although it was clear that it was a concept that needed to be explored. Hence a UK government initiative was instigated and ITIL® was born. Over the years, ITIL has evolved and, arguably, is now the most widely adopted approach in ITSM. It is globally recognized as the best-practice framework. ITIL’s universal appeal is that it continues to provide a set of processes and procedures that are efficient, reliable and adaptable to organizations of all sizes, enabling them to improve their own service provision. In the modern world the concept of having a strategy to drive the business forward with adequate planning and design transitioning into day-to-day operation is compelling. In this everchanging world the provision of a clear and precise strategy that aligns the business requirements with IT, ensuring that IT becomes a strategic partner, has never been more important. This publication explores how to ensure synergy exists between the business and IT and explains the supporting processes and procedures. There is an associated qualification scheme so that individuals can demonstrate their understanding and application of the ITIL practices. So whether you are starting out or continuing along the ITIL path, you are joining a legion of individuals and organizations who have recognized the benefits of good quality service and have a genuine resolve to improve their service level provision. ITIL is not a panacea to all problems. It is, however, a tried and tested approach that has been proven to work. I wish you every success in your service management journey. Frances Scarff Head of Best Management Practice Cabinet Office The principles contained within ITIL Service Strategy have been proven countless times in the real world. We encourage feedback from business and the ITSM community, as well as other experts in the field, to ensure that ITIL remains relevant. This practice of continual service improvement is one of the cornerstones of the ITIL framework and the fruits of this labour are here before you in this updated edition. 8888-TSO-ITIL-Service Strategy f1-Pre-Ch1.indd 9 11/07/2011 13:36 Preface ‘In strategy it is important to see distant things as if they were close and to take a distanced view of close things.’Miyamoto Musashi This is the first book in the series of five ITIL core publications containing advice and guidance around the activities and processes associated with the five stages of the service lifecycle. The primary purpose of the service strategy stage of the service lifecycle is to set and manage the correct overall strategy for IT, based upon the organization’s overall business strategy, so that appropriate IT services can be provided to meet the current and future needs of the business. Therefore strategic thinking must be applied to service management and service management must itself be regarded as a strategic asset of an IT organization. Service strategy agrees and defines the service portfolio and any new additions to it, and provides the input to service design so that the appropriate IT services can be designed and delivered to meet required business outcomes. Establishing a viable strategy is the first step but it is also essential to successfully communicate, market and sell that strategy to all customers, internal staff and suppliers to ensure that the design, transition and operation of IT services consistently meet required business outcomes. This involves close collaboration with continual service improvement to set up the appropriate monitoring, measurement, analysis, reporting and implementation of corrective actions. In this way the IT services being provided; the processes, tools and suppliers that deliver and operate them; and the overall strategy itself will remain fit for purpose (or will be updated as required). Contact information Full details of the range of material published under the ITIL banner can be found at: If you would like to inform us of any changes that may be required to this publication, please log them at: For further information on qualifications and training accreditation, please visit: Alternatively, please contact: APM Group – The Accreditor Service Desk Sword House Totteridge Road High Wycombe Buckinghamshire HP13 6DG UK Tel: +44 (0) 1494 458948 Email: [email protected] Strategy requires academic thinking, but should not remain as an academic exercise – it must be applied to the real business world in order to influence and drive successful business outcomes. ITIL Service Strategy provides practical guidance on how service strategy should be formulated and applied to provide business value. 8888-TSO-ITIL-Service Strategy f1-Pre-Ch1.indd 10 11/07/2011 13:36 Acknowledgements 2011 EDITION PublicationAcknowledgements.aspx Authors and mentors David Cannon (HP) Author David Wheeldon Mentor (David Wheeldon IT Service Management) Shirley Lacy (ConnectSphere) Project mentor Ashley Hanna (HP) Technical continuity editor Other members of the ITIL authoring team Thanks are due to the authors and mentors who have worked on all the publications in the lifecycle suite and contributed to the content in this publication and consistency across the suite. They are: Lou Hunnebeck (Third Sky), Vernon Lloyd (Fox IT), Anthony T. Orr (BMC Software), Stuart Rance (HP), Colin Rudd (IT Enterprise Management Services Ltd (ITEMS)) and Randy Steinberg (Migration Technologies Inc.). Project governance Members of the project governance team included: Jessica Barry, APM Group, project assurance (examinations); Marianna Billington, itSMFI, senior user; Emily Egle, TSO, team manager; Janine Eves, TSO, senior supplier; Phil Hearsum, Cabinet Office, project assurance (quality); Tony Jackson, TSO, project manager; Paul Martini, itSMFI, senior user; Richard Pharro, APM Group, senior supplier; Frances Scarff, Cabinet Office, project executive; Rob Stroud, itSMFI, senior user; Sharon Taylor, Aspect Group Inc., adviser to the project board (technical) and the ATO sub-group, and adviser to the project board (training). For more information on the ATO sub-group see: ATOSubGroupAppointed.aspx For a full list of acknowledgements of the ATO sub-group at the time of publication, please visit: 8888-TSO-ITIL-Service Strategy f1-Pre-Ch1.indd 11 Wider team Change advisory board The change advisory board (CAB) spent considerable time and effort reviewing all the comments submitted through the change control log and their hard work was essential to this project. Members of the CAB involved in this review included: David Cannon, Emily Egle, David Favelle, Ashley Hanna, Kevin Holland, Stuart Rance, Frances Scarff and Sharon Taylor. Once authors and mentors were selected for the 2011 update, a revised CAB was appointed and now includes: Emily Egle, David Favelle, Phil Hearsum, Kevin Holland and Frances Scarff. Further contributions The author would specifically like to thank Greg Morrison of Progressive Insurance for his assistance, and Rob England for his presentation on governance at the 2010 itSMF New Zealand conference. Reviewers Claire Agutter, IT Training Zone; Ernest R. Brewster, Independent; David M. Brink, Solutions3; Jeroen Bronkhorst, HP; Tony Brough, DHL Supply Chain; Janaki Chakravarthy, Independent; Collin Chan, Dell Inc.; Christiane Chung Ah Pong, NCS Pte Ltd, Singapore; Federico Corradi, Cogitek; Catalin Danila, ITAcademy; Michael Davies, ProActive Services Pty Ltd; James Doss, General Dynamics Information Technology; Jenny Dugmore, Service Matters; Frank Eggert, MATERNA GmbH; David Favelle, UXC Consulting/Lucid IT; Ryan Fraser, HP; Ian Head, Gartner Inc; Björn Hinrichs, SERVIEW GmbH; Kevin Holland, NHS Connecting for Health; Steve Ingall, iCore-ltd; Andreas Knaus, santix AG; Maggie Kneller; Brad Laatsch, HP; Chandrika Labru, Tata Consultancy Services; Reginald Lo, Third Sky; Hank Marquis, Lowe’s Companies Inc.; 11/07/2011 13:36 xii | Acknowledgements Jane McNamara, Lilliard Associates Ltd; Christian F. Nissen, CFN People; Dalibor Petrovic, Deloitte & Touche LLP, Canada; Judit Pongracz, ITeal Consulting; Noel Scott, Symantec; Joy Shewring, JS Project Services Ltd; Arun Simha, L-3 Communications STRATIS; John A. Sowerby, DP DHL IT Services; Thorsten Steiling, EJOT Holding GmbH & Co. KG; Helen Sussex, Logica; J.R. Tietsort, Micron Technology; Steve Tremblay, Excelsa Technologies Consulting Inc.; Ken Turbitt, Service Management Consultancy (SMCG) Ltd; John Windebank, Oracle Corporation. 2007 EDITION Chief architect and authors Thanks are still due to those who contributed to the 2007 edition of Service Strategy, upon which this updated edition is based. Sharon Taylor (Aspect Group Inc) Chief architect Majid Iqbal (Carnegie Mellon University) Author Michael Nieves (Accenture) Author All names and organizations were correct at publication in 2007. For a full list of all those who contributed to the 2007 and 2011 editions of Service Strategy, Service Design, Service Transition, Service Operation and Continual Service Improvement, please go to PublicationAcknowledgements.aspx 8888-TSO-ITIL-Service Strategy f1-Pre-Ch1.indd 12 11/07/2011 13:36 Introduction 8888-TSO-ITIL-Service Strategy f1-Pre-Ch1.indd 1 1 11/07/2011 13:36 8888-TSO-ITIL-Service Strategy f1-Pre-Ch1.indd 2 11/07/2011 13:36 | 3 1 Introduction ITIL is part of a suite of best-practice publications for IT service management (ITSM).1 ITIL provides guidance to service providers on the provision of quality IT services, and on the processes, functions and other capabilities needed to support them. ITIL is used by many hundreds of organizations around the world and offers best-practice guidance to all types of organization that provide services. ITIL is not a standard that has to be followed; it is guidance that should be read and understood, and used to create value for the service provider and its customers. Organizations are encouraged to adopt ITIL best practices and to adapt them to work in their specific environments in ways that meet their needs. ITIL is the most widely recognized framework for ITSM in the world. In the 20 years since it was created, ITIL has evolved and changed its breadth and depth as technologies and business practices have developed. ISO/IEC 20000 provides a formal and universal standard for organizations seeking to have their service management capabilities audited and certified. While ISO/IEC 20000 is a standard to be achieved and maintained, ITIL offers a body of knowledge useful for achieving the standard. In 2007, the second major refresh of ITIL was published in response to significant advancements in technology and emerging challenges for IT service providers. New models and architectures such as outsourcing, shared services, utility computing, cloud computing, virtualization, web services and mobile commerce have become widespread within IT. The process-based approach of ITIL was augmented with the service lifecycle to address these additional service management challenges. In 2011, as part of its commitment to continual improvement, the Cabinet Office published this update to improve consistency across the core publications. The ITIL framework is based on the five stages of the service lifecycle as shown in Figure 1.1, with a core publication providing best-practice guidance for each stage. This guidance includes key principles, required processes and activities, 1 ITSM and other concepts from this ch...
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