CHAPTER 14: GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY & MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION Administering Medications Medication: drug or other substance that is used as a remedy for illness Drug: chemical substance used to treat/prevent disease/condition Pharmacology: study of medication EMT medication administration- EMT carries out steps necessary to give patient medication via oral, injection, inhalation, or intranasal route o Medications carried on EMS unit Patient-assisted medication administration- orders state EMT will assist patient w admin of medication; EMT prepares, then hands over to patient to take o Often prescribed to patient and not carried on EMS unit Medications Commonly Administered by the EMT Oxygen o Oxygen administration if: Any patient w SpO2 < 94% or unknown SpO2 and medical condition that may lead to hypoxemia, hypoxia, or poor perfusion Suspected hypoxic/hypoxemic, or complains of dyspnea/respiratory distress Signs of shock, poor perfusion, or heart failure o Precautions w O2 administration: High concentrations in healthy individuals can reduce CO and left-ventricular perfusion (reduces systemic/coronary artery blood flow) Patients w heart disease- hyperoxia leads to coronary artery vasoconstriction and higher coronary artery resistance (reducing coronary blood flow to heart) Ischemic stroke (cerebral artery blocked) or acute coronary syndrome involving coronary artery blockage in heart- can cause reperfusion injury O2 administration not recommended for patients having acute myocardial infarction if SpO2 ≥ 94% and no evidence of hypoxia/hypoxemia, distress/dyspnea, or shock/poor perfusion/heart failure o O2 administration for medical conditions If SpO2 < 94%, signs of distress, hypoxia/hypoxemia, poor perfusion- initiate O2 therapy via nasal cannula at 2lpm and titrate up If severe hypoxia signs present- nonrebreather mas at 15lpm o O2 administration for trauma Traumatic injury (esp. to brain, thoracic organs, or spinal cord) Evidence of distress, hypoxia/hypoxemia, poor perfusion Potential exists for significant bleeding or shock Deliver O2 to est./maintain SpO2 ≥ 95% Oral glucose- administered to patient w history of diabetes suspected of having low BGL Activated charcoal- designed to bind an ingested poison to charcoal Aspirin- administered to patients having chest pain/discomfort that may be related to deficiency in O2 delivery to heart (acute coronary syndrome) o May keep coronary arteries from completely closing Inhaled bronchodilator- contain beta2 antagonists deposited on receptor sites in bronchiole tissue (causes bronchodilation) o Metered-dose inhaler (MDI): aerosolized medication for respiratory disease (asthma, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis) Inhaler medications: albuterol, levalbuterol Non-beta2 medication in MDI = Atrovent (ipratropium bromide); blocks PNS stimulation of smooth muscle (prevents bronchoconstriction) Designed to deliver medication w one inhalation
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- Fall '19
- Paul Palmiotto