ch14 - PERSONALITY THEORIES Hobbes argued that humans are...

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- PERSONALITY THEORIES - Hobbes argued that humans are by nature selfish o Life in a state of nature is “nasty, brutish, and short” o We need the government to protect ourselves from one another - Rousseau disagreed o people are naturally good and that governments are the problem, not the solution o rational people acting freely would advance the welfare of all - Freud held that people are born with sexual and destructive impulses that must be held in check if civilization is to survive - Carl ROGERS believed that people seek good and noble goals after they have been freed from unnecessary restraints - HOBBES - ROUSSEAU - Govt is required for protection - Humans are good - Humans are selfish - Govt is a corrupting influence - FREUD - ROGERS - Natural impulses are detrimental to society - Natural impulses are noble and good - Personality comes from Latin word persona, meaning “mask” - Personality – consists of all the consistent ways in which the behavior of one person differs from that of others, especially in social situations o Differences in learning, memory, sensation, or muscle control are genially not considered personality - - - SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH - Psychodynamic theory – relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual, including unconscious ones o That is, we are being pushed and pulled by internal forces that we do not fully understand - Freud’s influence within psychology has declined substantially - FREUD’S SEARCH FOR THE UNCONSCIOUS - A patient remembered various emotionally traumatic experiences o Freud said it produced catharsis – a release of pent-up tension, thereby reliving her illness - Freud began using this idea as psychoanalysis – method of explaining and dealing with personality, based on the interplay of conscious and unconscious forces o Started a simple theory: each of us has an unconscious mind and a conscious mind o Unconscious mind – the repository of memories, emotions, and thoughts, many of them illogical, that affect our behavior even though we cannot talk about them Traumatic experiences force thoughts and emotions into the unconscious (theoretically) o Goal of psychoanalysts is to bring those memories back to consciousness, producing catharsis and enabling the person to overcome irrational impulses - Later abandoned the hypotheses and suggested instead that the ultimate cause of psychological disorders was traumatic childhood sexual experiences, either by seduction by other children or sexual abuse by adults - Few years later, said their claims of sexual abuse were wishes and fantasies
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- Then said for boys: during early childhood every boy goes through an Oedipus complex – when he develops a sexual interest in his mother and competitive aggression toward his father o Most boys negotiate through this stage and emerge with a healthy personality, but some have sexual fantasies that they fail to resolve, leading to long-term personality difficulties -
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