ch3 - central nervous system consists of the brain and the...

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- central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord - it communicates with the rest of the body by the peripheral nervous system, which consists of bundles of nerves bw the spinal cord and the rest of the body - sensory nerves bring info from other body areas to the spinal cord - motor nerves take info from the spinal cord to the muscles, where they cause muscle contractions - peripheral nerves that control the heart, stomach, and other organs are called the autonomic nervous system - forebrain contains the cerebral cortex and other structures; it is by far the dominant portion of the brain in mammals - consists of 2 hemispheres: left and right - each is responsible for sensation and motor control on the opposite of the body - outer covering of the forebrain, known as the cerebral cortex, is esp prominent in humans - forebrain has 4 lobes: occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal o occipital: at rear of the head is specialized for vision (people with damage in this area have cortical blindness, no conscious, no vision, no object recognition, and no visual imagery can blink, but don’t depend on cerebral cortex o temporal: located toward left and right sides of the head, is the main area for hearing and some of the complex aspects of vision (damage to parts of it produces striking and specialized deficits, can’t recognize faces) see well in other regards and recognize people by their voices (damage to OTHER part become motion blind: can see size, shape, color, can’t track speed or direction) people with damage in auditory parts of the temporal lobe don’t become deaf, but they’re impaired at recognizing sequences of sounds, as in music or speech - part of temporal lobe of left hemisphere is impt for language comprehension damage have trouble understanding speech and remembering names of objects, hard to understand - amygdala: responds strongly to emotional situations damage: capable of feeling emotions, but slow to process emotional aspects of info, such as facial expressions and descriptions of emotional situations o parietal: just anterior (forward) from occipital lobe, is specialized for the body senses, including touch, pain, temperature, and awareness of the location of body parts in space - primary somatosensory cortex: a strip in the anterior portion of the parietal lobe, has cells sensitive to touch in different body areas damage impairs sensation from the corresponding part of the body extreme interferes with spatial attention after damage, people see something but can’t decipher where it is relative to their body, have trouble reaching toward it, walking around it, or shifting attention from one object to another o touch also activates parts of temporal lobe that are impt for emotional responses; after loss off input to somatosensory cortex, a person loses all conscious
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perception of touch but still reports a “pleasant” feeling after a gentle stroke along the skin -
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