ch11 - the foremost characteristic of motivated behaviors...

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- the foremost characteristic of motivated behaviors is that they are goal directed - if you are motivated to accomplish something, you try one approach after another until you succeed - if necessary, you set up subgoals you need to meet on your way to the final goal - nearly all behavior combine elements of motivation and reflex o walking depends on leg reflexes that maintain balance o eating requires reflexes of digestion o fixating your eyes on a target depends on reflexive movements of eye muscles - motivation – the process that determines the reinforcement value of an outcome o in more everyday language, motivation is what makes you want something more at one time and less at another - motivation as en energy KONRAD LORENZ - motivation comes from motion, literally something that “moves” a person - so we might think of it as a type of energy - animals engage in instinctive as when specific energies reach a critical level o male stickleback fish has a small amount of mating energy during mating season, so it courts females and attacks males o at height of breeding season, it has a great amount of mating energy, so it courts females vigorously, as well as wood models that resemble females - his theories are based on idea of specific energies for specific tasks – an idea that neuroscience research has disconfirmed - he believed that every impulse had to be carried out in some way to use up the energy - we now know that an individual can simply inhibit an impulse - DRIVE THEORIES - Drive – a state of unrest of irritation that energizes one behavior after another until one of them removes the irritation o When you get a splinter, the discomfort motivates you to try various actions until you remove the splinter - Drive-reduction theory – humans and other animals strive to reduce their needs and drives as much as possible o Eat to reduce hunger, drink to reduce thirst, etc o If satisfy all our needs, we would then become inactive o flaw – ignores the role of external stimulation your interest in food depends not only on hunger (an internal drive) but also on what foods are available - HOMEOSTASIS - Homeostasis – the maintenance of an optimum level of biological conditions within an organism o Recognizes that we are motivated to seek a state of equilibrium, which is not zero stimulation People maintain a nearly constant body temperature, resisting either an increase or decrease Maintain fairly steady body weight, etc
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- We are like a spinning top maintain constant body temperature partly by shivering, sweating, and other involuntary physiological responses and partly by putting on extra clothing, taking off excess clothing, or finding a more comfortable location - Human motivated behaviors differ from the actions of a thermostat, because our behavior often anticipates future needs o Might eat a large breakfast even if not hungry just bc you know you’re going to be too busy to stop for lunch o Angry or frightened, start sweating before you begin the vigorous actions that
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