ch13 - COOPERATION AND COMPETITION Altruistic behavior...

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- COOPERATION AND COMPETITION - Altruistic behavior – accepting some cost or risk to help others o In almost every species, animals devote great energies and risk their lives to help their children and sometimes other relatives o But they seldom spend much effort to help unrelated individuals - If a gene increases your altruism toward unrelated people, you increase the other people’s probability of surviving and spreading their genes, which are unlike your own o You don’t increase, and you may slightly decrease, the Pr of spreading your own genes, including for one for altruism o So society would benefit, but gene causing the benefit would not spread - THE PRISONER’S DILEMMA AND SIMILAR SITUATIONS - Very few people are consistently altruistic - It depends if you cooperate with others and help others generously o Use prisoner’s dilemma – a situation where people choose bw a cooperative act and a competitive act that benefits themselves but hurts others o Robbing bank: Partner confesses Partner doesn’t confess You confess 5 years (you) 5 years (partner) 0 years (you) 20 years (partner) You don’t confess 20 years (you) 0 years (partner) 1 year (you) 1 year (partner) o the 2 of you are most likely to cooperate if you can stay in constant communication - prisoner’s dilemma can also be stated in terms of gains - suppose you and another person have a choice bw 2 moves, which we call cooperate and compete Other person cooperates Other person competes You cooperate Both win $1 Other person gains $2; you lose $2 You compete You gain $2; other person loses $2 Both lose $1 - EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES - Most dependable strategy is reciprocity, also called “tit for tat”: start with the cooperate move; if other person cooperates too, then continue cooperating o If other person makes a compete move, retaliate with a compete move on your next turn o Your retaliation should teach the other person not to try to take advantage of you - If you use this strategy, you will never beat the other person, but both of you will do reasonably well - Most individuals do cooperate in prisoner’s dilemma type situations, especially when real rewards are at stake - Culture makes some difference Chinese people cooperate more than Americans on average - Groups are more likely to compete with one another instead of cooperating - Trust game start with $10, if give to B, will be doubled, B transfer back however much, and it will be doubled, but trust? - Most people start off by cooperating; after the 1 st round, your behavior depends on how people have you in the past o Whenever people cooperate with you or treat you kindly, in this situation or any other, you become more likely to trust and help other people 1
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o However, if someone cheats you, for example, you transfer $10 to B, who returns nothing to you – you become less trusting and less cooperative u stop transferring money when u are A and return less when you are B Cheating spread within the population and soon no one transfer any
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2008 for the course PSYCH 10 taught by Professor Zaidel during the Winter '08 term at UCLA.

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ch13 - COOPERATION AND COMPETITION Altruistic behavior...

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