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Unformatted text preview: © Future Strategies Inc. This book is published in digital format. The content of this book is fully copyrighted and may not be distributed or data extracted therefrom without written permission by the publisher, Future Strategies Inc. Contact [email protected] . Tel: +1 954 782 3376. You are licensed to print one copy for your own use. BPMN Modeling and Reference Guide UNDERSTANDING AND USING BPMN Develop rigorous yet understandable graphical representations of business processes STEPHEN A. WHITE, PHD DEREK MIERS Future Strategies Inc. Lighthouse Point, Florida, USA BPMN Modeling and Reference Guide: Understanding and Using BPMN Copyright © 2008 by Future Strategies Inc. ISBN10: 0-9777527-2-0 ISBN13: 978-0-9777527-2-0 Published by Future Strategies Inc., Book Division 2436 North Federal Highway, #374, Lighthouse Point, FL 33064 USA 954.782.3376 / 954.782.6365 fax — [email protected] Cover: Hara Allison All brand names and product names mentioned in this book are trademarks or service marks of their respective companies. Any omission or misuse should not be regarded as intent to infringe on the property of others. The Publisher recognizes and respects all marks used by companies, manufacturers and developers as a means to distinguish their products. Neither the authors, the editors nor Future Strategies Inc., accept any responsibility or liability for loss or damage occasioned to any person or property through using the material, instructions, methods, or ideas contained herein, or acting or refraining from acting as a result of such use. The authors and the publisher expressly disclaim all implied warrantees, including merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. There will be no duty on the authors or Publisher to correct any errors or defects in the software. © All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems—without written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Publisher’s Cataloging-in-Publication Data ISBN: 978-0-9777527-2-0 Library of Congress Control Number: 2008932799 BPMN Modeling and Reference Guide: Understanding and Using BPMN /Stephen A. White, PhD., Derek Miers p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and appendices. 1. Business Process Management. 2. Process Modeling. 3. Enterprise Architecture. 4. Notation Standard. 5. Workflow. 6. Process Analysis White, Stephen A.; Miers, Derek Table of Contents FOREWORD .......................................................................9 PART I. UNDERSTANDING BPMN ...................................13 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .......................................15 BOOK STRUCTURE ............................................................... 16 TYPOGRAPHICAL CONVENTIONS .............................................. 17 CHAPTER 2. THE IMPORTANCE OF MODELING ...........19 PROCESS MODELS AID COMMUNICATION ................................. 20 PROCESS MODELS THAT DRIVE WORK .................................... 22 PROCESS MODELING IN BPMN............................................... 23 THE HISTORY AND OBJECTIVES OF BPMN ............................... 24 CHAPTER 3. PROCESSES ............................................27 CATEGORIES OF PROCESSES .................................................. 29 Orchestration ........................................................................... 29 Choreography .......................................................................... 30 Collaboration ........................................................................... 32 CHAPTER 4. MODELING ISSUES ..................................33 “ALL MODELS ARE WRONG, SOME ARE USEFUL” ....................... 33 HOW MANY PROCESSES, WHERE DO THEY FIT? ....................... 35 DEALING WITH COMPLEXITY IN BPMN ..................................... 36 CHAPTER 5. SCENARIO-BASED BPMN INTRODUCTION 39 BUILDING OUT A PROCESS WITH BPMN ................................... 39 SETTING TIMERS .................................................................. 40 LOOPING ............................................................................. 44 DECISIONS BASED ON EVENTS............................................... 45 MEETING SLAS.................................................................... 47 REPRESENTING ROLES IN PROCESSES ..................................... 48 MODELING DATA AND DOCUMENTS ......................................... 50 COORDINATING PARALLEL THREADS OF ACTIVITY ...................... 52 ANOTHER APPROACH TO ESCALATION ...................................... 57 MORE THAN ONE RIGHT ANSWER ........................................... 59 5 BPMN Modeling and Reference Guide © Published by Future Strategies Inc. PART II. BPMN REFERENCE SECTION ........................... 63 CHAPTER 6. BPMN REFERENCE INTRODUCTION ........ 65 CHAPTER 7. ACTIVITIES ............................................ 67 TASKS ................................................................................ 68 SUB-PROCESSES ................................................................. 69 Types of Sub-Processes ........................................................... 70 CONNECTING ACTIVITIES ....................................................... 73 ACTIVITY BEHAVIOR.............................................................. 73 With Multiple Incoming Sequence Flow ................................... 75 With Multiple Outgoing Sequence Flow ................................... 76 Looping .................................................................................... 77 Multi Instance Activities........................................................... 78 PROCESS LEVELS ................................................................. 79 Top-Level Processes ................................................................. 80 Behavior Across Process Levels .............................................. 81 Connecting Sub-Processes ....................................................... 83 CHAPTER 8. EVENTS .................................................. 87 START EVENTS .................................................................... 87 Connecting Start Events .......................................................... 89 Start Event Behavior ............................................................... 90 The None Start Event ............................................................... 90 Timer Start Events ................................................................... 91 Message Start Events .............................................................. 91 Signal Start Events .................................................................. 92 Conditional Start Events .......................................................... 93 Multiple Start Events ............................................................... 94 Modeling with More than One Start Event............................... 95 Start Events and Sub-Processes.............................................. 95 Start Events Are Optional ........................................................ 95 INTERMEDIATE EVENTS ......................................................... 97 Intermediate Event Behavior ................................................. 100 Connecting Intermediate Events ............................................ 101 Interrupting Activities with Events ........................................ 101 None Intermediate Events ..................................................... 105 Timer Intermediate Events .................................................... 105 Message Intermediate Events ............................................... 110 Signal Intermediate Event ..................................................... 112 Error Intermediate Events ..................................................... 119 Cancel Intermediate Event .................................................... 120 Compensation Intermediate Event ........................................ 121 Conditional Intermediate Events ........................................... 121 Link Intermediate Events....................................................... 122 Multiple Intermediate Events ................................................. 126 6 BPMN Modeling and Reference Guide © Published by Future Strategies Inc. END EVENTS ..................................................................... 127 Connecting End Events .......................................................... 128 End Event Behavior ............................................................... 129 None End Events ................................................................... 130 Message End Events ............................................................. 130 Signal End Event ................................................................... 131 Terminate End Event ............................................................. 131 Error End Event ..................................................................... 132 Cancel End Event .................................................................. 134 Compensation End Event ...................................................... 134 Multiple End Event................................................................. 135 CHAPTER 9. GATEWAYS ............................................137 EXCLUSIVE GATEWAYS........................................................ 139 Exclusive Gateway Splitting Behavior ................................... 140 Exclusive Gateway Merging Behavior ................................... 142 EVENT-BASED EXCLUSIVE GATEWAYS ................................... 144 Event Gateway Splitting Behavior ......................................... 144 Event Gateway Merging Behavior ......................................... 147 PARALLEL GATEWAYS.......................................................... 147 Parallel Gateway Splitting ..................................................... 148 Parallel Gateway Merging ..................................................... 149 INCLUSIVE GATEWAYS ......................................................... 152 Inclusive Gateway Splitting Behavior .................................... 152 Inclusive Gateway Merging Behavior .................................... 154 COMPLEX GATEWAYS .......................................................... 157 Complex Gateway Splitting Behavior .................................... 157 Complex Gateway Merging Behavior..................................... 158 CHAPTER 10. SWIMLANES ..........................................161 POOLS .............................................................................. 161 LANES .............................................................................. 163 CHAPTER 11. ARTIFACTS ...........................................167 DATA OBJECTS .................................................................. GROUPS ........................................................................... TEXT ANNOTATIONS ............................................................ ARTIFACTS ARE EXTENDABLE ............................................... CHAPTER 12. 167 168 171 171 CONNECTORS .......................................173 SEQUENCE FLOW ............................................................... 173 Conditional Sequence Flow.................................................... 174 Default Sequence Flow .......................................................... 176 MESSAGE FLOW................................................................. 177 ASSOCIATION ..................................................................... 178 NORMAL FLOW .................................................................. 179 DATA FLOW ....................................................................... 180 BPMN Modeling and Reference Guide © Published by Future Strategies Inc. 7 CHAPTER 13. ADVANCED CONCEPTS ......................... 185 PERFORMING AN ACTIVITY ................................................... 185 The Life-Cycle of an Activity .................................................. 185 COMPENSATION AND TRANSACTIONS ..................................... 187 Hazards in a Transaction Sub-Process ................................. 189 Cancellation in a Transaction Sub-Process ........................... 190 Compensation without a Transaction Sub-Process ............... 193 AD HOC PROCESSES .......................................................... 194 APPENDICES ................................................................. 197 PROCESS EXECUTION ENVIRONMENTS ................................... 197 TECHNIQUES FOR PROCESS ARCHITECTURE ........................... 199 Functional Decomposition ...................................................... 199 Process Composition .............................................................. 200 Business Services Oriented Architecture ............................... 200 From Business Context to Process Architecture .................... 201 Further Reading..................................................................... 202 BPMN ISSUES AND DIRECTIONS ........................................... 204 Choreography versus Orchestration ...................................... 204 Collaborative Decisions and Meetings ................................... 204 BPMN Futures........................................................................ 204 BPMN BEST PRACTICES ..................................................... 206 AFTERWORD ................................................................. 209 AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES................................................. 213 GLOSSARY .................................................................... 217 INDEX ........................................................................... 229 8 BPMN Modeling and Reference Guide © Published by Future Strategies Inc. Foreword Richard Mark Soley, Ph.D. Chairman and CEO Object Management Group, Inc. July 2008 Cheaper by the dozen! What kind of crazy couple would carefully plan out their family to include a dozen children, simply because their detailed study of child-rearing had computed a family of twelve children to be optimal? Only a man and woman so deeply steeped in time-and-motion studies that their entire life revolved around optimization. Though the family of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth has been celebrated on the silver screen, the dehumanizing effects of the view of people as cogs in the machine has also found its way to the klieg lights, most obviously in Charlie Chaplin's dark comedy “Modern Times.” Clearly the optimization of business processes is not a particularly new idea. The Industrial Revolution, especially in the late 19th century, focused attention on the systemization of business to increase revenue and profits, resulting in not only Colt's and Ford's standardized parts and assembly lines, but also the time-and-motion studies of the Gilbreths and Frederick Winslow Taylor. Under the headings of “ergonomics” and “human-factors design,” these studies continue to optimize shipping departments, manufacturing organizations, healthcare provision, even automotive design. What about optimizing management practice? Certainly the revolution leading to the common Western management style of the early 20th century put in place a structure that seems quite rigid from the outside, though that rigidity is rarely visible inside. Management is often regarded often as a “soft” science, though certainly decision-making efficacy and efficiency can be measured (and are, in some firms). At the core of business process optimization has to be a focus on systemizing business practice, whether that practice is the daily function of a telemarketer in a call center, a shipping clerk on the loading dock, an appointments manager in a medical office, or a Vice President finalizing an investment decision. Even decision-making processes that cannot be fully automated can nonetheless be mapped, tracked, optimized and edited. The science for doing so is not particularly new; the systems to support managing business processes are not even new. What's new is a focused interest in leveraging a specific man- BPMN Modeling and Reference Guide © Published by Future Strategies Inc. 9 agement practice to support business agility—and a worldwide standard for specifying business processes, whether they are fully automated, completely manual, or somewhere in-between. The Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) is the culmination of two streams of work from the late 1990's and early in this century. One of those streams was focused on workflow management and planning, while the other was concerned with modeling and architecture. It is amazing to note that after hundreds of years of success in the careful design engineering of bridges, ships and buildings from the 16th century forward, so-called “modern” engineering disciplines like software development have successfully resisted ancient and relevant engineering discipline for decades. This is changing; the recognition that modeling is necessary to the success of large complex software systems is now quite common, just as it became a common recognition in the shipwrights and building trades in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the bridge-builder's trade in the 19th century. Blueprints are just as relevant to software as they are to building designs. From an abstract viewpoint, software designed to run businesses (like enterprise resource planning systems, shipment management systems, billing systems and the like) are in fact business process descriptions at a startlingly low level. You wouldn't know by looking at the arcane C++ and Java codes that these systems described business processes, but of course they do. In fact, even BPMN business process descriptions are a generalization of what software is about—automating processes. But real processes in real organizations aren't fully automatable. Which means we can't use the same language to define, can't use the same processes to measure, or to optimize. The combination of the ability of “modern” program languages to obscure the intention of function, with their inability to clearly integrate manual and executive processes, makes most programming languages at least inefficient and more likely useless as process description languages. This technical stream of practice description, along with the late 20th century trends of workflow management and Business Process Re-engineering, forged the appearance of an explicit and detailed language to describe business processes, focusing on clearly stating the intent of a process description and fully recognizing that all interesting business processes involve a human touch. The merger of the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) with the Object Management Group (OMG) brought to- 10 BPMN Modeling and Reference Guide © Published by Future Strategies Inc. gether two well-focused groups into a stronger organization. BPMI had focused on business processes; OMG had focused on the generic modeling problem with its Model Driven Architecture, and especially on the modeling of software systems. The new OMG which emerged in 2005 successfully created a single organization focused on the modeling of systems, including business processes, in two dozen vertical markets from healthcare to finance, manufacturing to life sciences, and government systems to military systems. Not only did the BPMN language stay, but it gained a detailed technical underpinning with MDA (integrating it with languages for expressing software design, systems engineering design and even hardware design). Most importantly, the expertise stayed with the la...
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