lecture3 - Part I Breathing for voice and speech production...

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Part I Breathing for voice and speech production
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How do humans produce sound? What is the point of this section? To determine how speakers can differ from each other, and the kinds of things they can vary that convey information to listeners. Listeners gather information about the organism from sounds it produces, so it’s useful to know how those sounds are actually related to the body that produced them.
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The human vocal organs Phonation requires: a source of power (to set molecules vibrating); a vibrating structure to convert aerodynamic power to acoustic energy; a filter to shape resulting output. In humans, these are the lungs, the vocal folds, and the supraglottic vocal tract.
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The human vocal tract Phonation is not the original function of these structures. The lungs are used for respiration (aka exchange of gasses—out with carbon dioxide waste, in with new oxygen), smell, and thermoregulation. The larynx protects the airway, and provides a rigid frame for heavy lifting. Supraglottic structures are used for eating, smelling, and so on.
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Breathing The lungs provide most of the raw power for speech and voice. Speech breathing requires some changes to regular respiration. Prolonging exhalation so that more than one word can be produced on a single breath. We’ll start by describing normal breathing, then talk about how we change our behavior to speak.
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Respiratory anatomy Breathing uses the lungs, chest wall, and abdomen. The lungs are a complex branching network of air passages that end in millions of spongy, elastic air cells. No muscles of their own Supported by diaphragm Contained by 12 pairs of ribs
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The chest wall Between lungs and ribs are tissues called pleura . One pleura ( visceral pleura ) runs between the lung and the ribs. A second ( parietal pleura ) lines the chest wall. The pleura doubly seal the lungs. A small amount of fluid lies between the pleura, so they can slide against each other, but not pull apart. The pleura link lung tissue to the ribs, so that when the rib cage elevates/compresses, lung tissue goes with it.
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Changing the shape of the chest cavity Three primary muscles of respiration The diaphragm The internal intercostals the external intercostals. Function: By changing the shape of the chest cavity, these muscles create positive/negative air pressure in lungs.
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The diaphragm A dome-shaped muscle Contracts downwards When it contracts, the dome flattens out, increases size of thoracic cavity When it relaxes, it returns to rest position and reduces the size of the thoracic cavity.
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