Prob_set_4ans - Problem Set#4 Bio 1A Name Section 1 What is...

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Problem Set #4 Bio 1A Name _________________________________ Section___ 1. What is meant by the term “energy” in a scientific context? What about free energy? Energy is the capacity to do work. Free energy is the energy released during or required for a reaction. Δ G= Δ H-T Δ S 2. Define Δ G˚ in quantitative terms and explain what each component of this definition means. Δ G o = -RTlnK eq R is a constant; T is temperature o Kelvin and K eq is the equilibrium constant for the reaction. 3. What is the difference between Δ G and Δ G ˚? Δ G o is a constant based on the exact nature of the reactants and products. Δ G is a calculated value which depends on Δ G o and the concentrations of the reactants and products. 4. What is the difference between thermodynamics and kinetics? Thermodynamics is based on differences between starting and ending states of a reaction while kinetics is based on rate. Thus, a thermodynamically favorable reaction, referred to as spontaneous, may take years to occur without a catalyst. 5. What is a catalyst? How are catalysts used in biology? What types of molecules are these? A chemical which speeds up the rate of a reaction but is not consumed by that reaction. They are used to regulate the rate of biochemical reactions and to allow endergonic reactions to occur by coupling them with exergonic reactions. Most biological catalysts are proteins (enzymes), but there are famous examples of RNA serving as catalysts (ribozymes). 6. Diagram the energy profile for an exergonic reaction, labeling: activation energy, Δ G , transition state, and plot how enzymes affect the kinetics of a reaction.
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