ACABS Exam 1 Review - 1 EGYPT Location Modern Egypt vs...

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1 EGYPT ·Location ·Modern Egypt vs. Ancient Egypt ·Geography and Environment Egypt in the modern world MODERN EGYPT: Arab Republic of Egypt Area: about 400,000 square miles Population: about 55,000,000 people Official Language: Arabic Majority Religion: Islam (significant minority of Coptic Christians) Government: Republic Main sources of income: Agriculture and Tourism ANCIENT EGYPT Kemet Aigyptos, Aegyptus > Egypt Area: varies Population: never more than a few million Official language: Ancient Egyptian, later Greek Religion: indigenous Egyptian belief system (subject of course!) Form of government: monarchy (divine king as ruler) Major economic activities: Agriculture and (later) tourism Nile River: -Nile flows north from central Africa -Annual flooding of Nile irrigates farm land -Nile branches into Delta -Nile flows into Mediterranean Sea Regular cycle of agriculture Cyclical thinking/cyclical time Repeating religious calendar
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Environmental features important for religion? Nile Sun Desert Fertile farm land Water Ancient Egypt: Dating Chronological Systems Dating Systems: B.C. / A.D. "Before Christ" / "Anno Domini" B.C.E. / C.E. "Before Common Era" / "Common Era" 8 January A.D. 2008 = 8 January 2008 CE Course covers roughly 3000-300 BC/BCE "Circa" or "c." "About" As in: c. 1950 B.C.E. = "about 1950 B.C.E." Kinds of evidence Archaeological evidence Context: Funerary (tombs, burials) Temple (sites of worship, cult) Settlement (where people lived) Representational Evidence
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Painting, drawing, sculpture, etc. Textual evidence Egyptian language Scripts: Hieroglyphic Hieratic Demotic Coptic Egyptian Language "Afroasiatic family" Semitic: Akkadian, Hebrew, Arabic, etc. African: Bedja, Berber, Bantu, etc. Rosetta stone Egyptian Hieroglyphs Demotic (also Egyptian) Greek Greeks and Romans Plutarch (important for Egyptian religion) Manetho: Egyptian history divided into DYNASTIES (families of rulers) Egyptologists: Further group dynasties into periods: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, etc. First Intermediate Period, Second Intermediate Period, etc.
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Problems for the beginning Egyptologist: Names Different spellings Amen, Amon, Amun, Ammon, etc. Amenhotep, Amunhotpe, Amenophis, etc. Egyptian versus Greek Hor/Horus, Ise/Isis, Djheuty/Thoth, Taweret/Thoëris, etc. Dates No one agrees! 2 Religion: Class thoughts on religion: -Set of beliefs shared by a people -Belief in a higher power -Beliefs organized into rituals and practices at specific times and places -A way of expaining the unexplained -A mechanism of control and power -Provides social cohesion Religion: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. (adapted): Recognition on the part of a person of some higher unseen power as having control of his/her destiny, and as being entitled to obedience, reverence and worship; the general mental and moral attitude resulting from this belief, with reference to its effect on the individual or community; personal or general acceptance of this feeling as a standard of spiritual and practical life.
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