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Notes for an Introductory Course On Electrical Machines and Drives E.G.Strangas MSU Electrical Machines and Drives Laboratory c 2007 Elias G. Strangas
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Contents Preface ix 1 Three Phase Circuits and Power 1 1.1 Electric Power with steady state sinusoidal quantities 1 1.2 Solving 1-phase problems 5 1.3 Three-phase Balanced Systems 6 1.4 Calculations in three-phase systems 9 2 Magnetics 15 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 The Governing Equations 15 2.3 Saturation and Hysteresis 19 2.4 Permanent Magnets 21 2.5 Faraday’s Law 22 2.6 Eddy Currents and Eddy Current Losses 25 2.7 Torque and Force 27 3 Transformers 29 3.1 Description 29 3.2 The Ideal Transformer 30 3.3 Equivalent Circuit 32 3.4 Losses and Ratings 35 3.5 Per-unit System 37 v
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vi CONTENTS 3.6 Transformer tests 40 3.6.1 Open Circuit Test 41 3.6.2 Short Circuit Test 41 3.7 Three-phase Transformers 43 3.8 Autotransformers 44 4 Concepts of Electrical Machines; DC motors 47 4.1 Geometry, Fields, Voltages, and Currents 47 5 Three-phase Windings 53 5.1 Current Space Vectors 53 5.2 Stator Windings and Resulting Flux Density 55 5.2.1 Balanced, Symmetric Three-phase Currents 58 5.3 Phasors and space vectors 58 5.4 Magnetizing current, Flux and Voltage 60 6 Induction Machines 63 6.1 Description 63 6.2 Concept of Operation 64 6.3 Torque Development 66 6.4 Operation of the Induction Machine near Synchronous Speed 67 6.5 Leakage Inductances and their Effects 71 6.6 Operating characteristics 72 6.7 Starting of Induction Motors 75 6.8 Multiple pole pairs 76 7 Synchronous Machines and Drives 81 7.1 Design and Principle of Operation 81 7.1.1 Wound Rotor Carrying DC 81 7.1.2 Permanent Magnet Rotor 82 7.2 Equivalent Circuit 82 7.3 Operation of the Machine Connected to a Bus of Constant Voltage and Frequency 84 7.4 Operation from a Source of Variable Frequency and Voltage 88 7.5 Controllers for PMAC Machines 94 7.6 Brushless DC Machines 94 8 Line Controlled Rectifiers 97 8.1 1- and 3-Phase circuits with diodes 97 8.2 One -Phase Full Wave Rectifier 98 8.3 Three-phase Diode Rectifiers 100 8.4 Controlled rectifiers with Thyristors 101
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CONTENTS vii 8.5 One phase Controlled Rectifiers 102 8.5.1 Inverter Mode 102 8.6 Three-Phase Controlled Converters 104 8.7 *Notes 105 9 Inverters 107 9.1 1-phase Inverter 107 9.2 Three-phase Inverters 109 10 DC-DC Conversion 115 10.1 Step-Down or Buck Converters 115 10.2 Step-up or Boost Converter 117 10.3 Buck-boost Converter 120
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Preface The purpose of these notes is be used to introduce Electrical Engineering students to Electrical Machines, Power Electronics and Electrical Drives. They are primarily to serve our students at MSU: they come to the course on Energy Conversion and Power Electronics with a solid background in Electric Circuits and Electromagnetics, and many want to acquire a basic working knowledge of the material, but plan a career in a different area (venturing as far as computer or mechanical engineering). Other students are interested in continuing in the study of electrical machines and drives, power electronics or power systems, and plan to take further courses in the field.
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