lecture6 - I Finding journal articles on the library...

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I. Finding journal articles on the library webpage
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Case 1: You know what you want Journal citation format Precise format varies, but you usually need most of the following information: Author Article title Year of publication Journal name Journal volume Page numbers
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Example: Journal article Clemins, P.J., Johnson, M.T., Leong, K.M., and Savage, A. ( 2005 ). "Automatic classification, speaker identification of African elephant (loxodonta africana) vocalizations," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 117 , 964-972.
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The library webpage ( )
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Example: Article in press Hamdan, A.L., Sibai, A., and Rameh, C. ( 2006) . "Effect of fasting on voice in women," J Voice. May also be labeled “to appear”
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Case 2: You don’t know what you want Helpful article databases with abstracts and (sometimes) links to articles (on library webpage) PsychInfo Language and Language Behavior Abstracts PubMed Database with keywords but no links (on class webpage) UCLA Voice Reference Database
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II. Controlling the sound of a voice (and an introduction to singing)
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Controlling F0 and pitch (review) Less massive folds should vibrate faster, and stiffer folds should vibrate faster So: To increase frequency (and thus pitch), increase stiffness, or decrease mass, or both
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Changing stiffness and mass To change stiffness: Contract the cricothyroid (CT) muscle to stretch the vocal folds (analogous to tightening a tuning peg on a cello) This is the primary means of changing F0 To change “mass”: Contract the TA muscle
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Controlling loudness Loudness is mostly related to an interaction between air flow and glottal adjustment. Basics of aerodynamics: pressure, flow, resistance
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Controlling loudness Empirical evidence suggests that loudness is associated mostly with increase in subglottal pressure. From the equations above, to increase loudness (i.e., pressure), you can increase resistance or flow.
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Controlling loudness Changing resistance implies changes in laryngeal adjustment: A smaller glottal opening = more resistance.
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