emotion1 - The Voices of Emotion Introduction Emotion and...

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The Voices of Emotion
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Introduction Emotion and personality are related concepts. Emotion as transient state Personality as more enduring state Unlike perception of emotion from face, judgments of emotion from voice are relatively independent of distance and viewing conditions.
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Why study emotion? Detect stress, emotional state in pilots, law enforcement, etc. General theory of speech performance Improve speech synthesis.
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Historical background Study of emotion in voice goes back at least to the Greco-Romans. Cicero and Aristotle both thought that each emotion is associated with a distinctive tone of voice.
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Historical background Serious study of voice and emotion began with Darwin (1872). Voice serves as main carrier of affective signals. There is a direct correspondence between particular states in the talker and the sounds produced. Vocal displays of emotion are “honest” indicators of internal state.
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Three functions of emotion Reflect organism’s evaluation of relevance and significance of particular stimuli Physiologically and psychologically prepare organism for appropriate action Communicate the organism’s state and behavioral intentions to other organisms.
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Physiological basis? Innate frequency code High frequency = small and submissive Low frequency = dominant and aggressive Relation to smiling/frowning?
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Another function of emotion? Darwin also suggested a further use of emotional displays in voice: influencing listener affect. Aspects of these signals come to elicit learned emotional responses in recipients that hear them in association with affect–producing events.
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Emotion is hard to study Not steady state; dependent on internal state of organism; vary across individuals and across time within an individual. Difficult to measure and describe variable phenomena that depend on the internal state of an organism.
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Emotion is hard to describe Choice of words used to describe emotional features varies and can be arbitrary. 100’s of terms in English; at least 60 seem distinct enough to merit study. How can a small number of acoustic cues distinguish so many internal states?
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More trouble with language Most investigators use range of emotive words to describe emotional features Not necessarily chosen for theoretical reasons Factor analysis approaches Totally arbitrary approaches
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Approaches to the study of emotion Biological-psychoevolutionary tradition Emotions are linked to systems that evolved to deal with biologically significant events, so they should be universal. Example: fight or flee responses. Social constructivist tradition Argues that all emotions are cultural products, and that they owe their meaning and expression to social rules.
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