emotions2 - Emotion and voice part 2 Recap Three functions...

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Emotion and voice, part 2
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Recap: Three functions of emotion Reflect organism’s evaluation of relevance and significance of particular stimuli Physiologically and psychologically prepare organism for appropriate action Communicate the organism’s state and behavioral intentions to other organisms.
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Another function of emotion? Darwin also suggested a further use of emotional displays in voice: influencing listener affect. Aspects of these signals come to elicit learned emotional responses in recipients that hear them in association with affect–producing events.
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Three hypotheses for studies of emotion There is a direct correspondence between particular states in the signaler and the communicative display produced. Emotional cues in speech reflect continuous activation and valence dimensions (arousal and pleasure), rather than discrete emotional states.
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Third hypothesis The primary function of emotional signals is to influence listeners’ affect and thus modulate their behavior.
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How well do listeners recognize emotions? Not that well Recognition of specific emotions averages about 55% correct (with chance usually about 12%). Sadness and anger are best recognized Fear and joy are above chance as well Disgust is the worst recognized Suggests the first two hypothesis may not be the best models of how humans communicate emotion.
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Acoustic cues to emotion: Anger Frequency seems to be most important cue Increases in mean F0 Mean intensity also increases. F0 range/variability may also increase, at least for "hot" anger. Intonation contours may turn down. Rate of articulation may increase.
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Cues to fear F0 and F0 range increase with arousal. High frequency energy also increases, suggesting extra laryngeal tension. Rate of articulation increases.
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Cues to sadness Quiet, resigned sadness: Decrease in mean F0, F0 range Monotone voice Decreased intensity/loudness Rate of articulation decreases. Correlates of desperation are like those of any other kind of arousal.
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Cues to joy Usually studied as elation, not subdued happiness or enjoyment. Marked by: Increases in mean F0, F0 range, F0 variability, intensity. May also find increases in high-frequency intensity, rate of articulation
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Testing these findings: Voice synthesis Neutral voice Hot anger Joy Fear Sorrow Despair Boredom
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Recapitulation Where there is consistent agreement, it's usually related to arousal, and the cues are pretty similar whatever the arousal emotion is. F0 and amplitude seem clearly related to arousal. Very little agreement about non-arousal emotions. Much less agreement about valence.
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Caveats These results don't mean listeners can't identify/discriminate among emotions Relatively crude acoustic analyses applied Coarse cues Limited number of cues studied
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Another approach to the study of emotion
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