(1) The Main Question Dealt With By The Text Is…(2) Moral/Ethical Objectivism(3) Moral/Ethical Skepticism(3.1) Three Main Kinds Of Moral Skepticism: Subjectivism, Relativism, Nihilism(3.2) Nihilism Comes In Two Main Forms: The Error Theory, Non-Cognitivism(4) The Case Against Moral Skepticism:Error……Equivalence……Progress/Regress……Arbitrariness……Contradiction(4.1) Relativism and Contradiction: Subculture ProblemFinal Item: ‘END OF “MORAL SKEPTICISM” STUDY SHEET’***IMPORTANT*** If you print this study sheet, make sure you print all of it; it ends with this: ‘END OF “MORAL SKEPTICISM” STUDY SHEET’(1) THE MAIN QUESTION DEALT WITH BY THE TEXT, AND BY THE MATERIAL FOR TESTS 2 ANS 3, IS:ARE THERE OBJECTIVE MORAL TRUTHS? (see Ch. 1 of text)“Truths”/“facts”: It might be helpful to think of objective moral truths as objective moral facts. These expressions will be used interchangeably below. Truths are facts, and facts are truths.What “objective truth” means: To say that a certain claim is an “objective truth” is to say this:It’s true regardless of what any person or group thinks (believes, feels, etc.) about it. Objective truths are “true independently of what anyone, anywhere, thinks about them” .EXAMPLES OF OBJECTIVE TRUTHS OUTSIDE OF MORALITY: (a) Mathematical truths: Most people think mathematical truths are objective truths (or “objectively true” or “objective facts” or just “objective”). That means such truths are true regardless of what any person or group thinks about them. Consider these mathematical truths:2+3=5. a2+b2=c2 (the Pythagorean Theorem). 12x12=144.To say that these are “objective truths” is to say that these claims are true regardless of what any personor group thinks about them. Even if I, we, all Americans, or even all humans think 2+3=6, it would still be true that 2+3=5 and not 6.(b) Scientific truths: Most people think scientific truths are objective truths; their truth doesn’t depend on what anyone thinks. “The Earth is a globe” is a fact that doesn’t depend on what any person or group thinks about it. Even if I, we, all Americans, or even all humans think “The Earth is flat,” that wouldn’t affect the Earth’s shape.(c) Historical truths: Most people think there are objective historical truths, such as:Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. Japan lost in World War II. Adolf Hitler died in 1945.
These are objective historical facts (or so most people think); that is, they’re true regardless of what any person or group thinks.BACK TO MORALITY:So our main question—are there objective MORAL truths?—means:Are there MORAL TRUTHS that are true regardless of what any person or group thinks of them? Here’s an example of the issue: Most people would accept the following moral judgment*: “It is morally wrong to torture babies just for fun.” But is that moral judgment objectively true? (is it an objective fact?). *NOTE: A moral judgment is a moral evaluation: a claim that something is morally right/wrong, good/bad, etc., such as “Abortion is wrong” and “Abortion is right.”