Lecture 2 Exam Review - Review for Lecture Exam#2 The...

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Review for Lecture Exam #2. The following questions are intended as a review for the exam. They do not necessarily represent everything that will be on the exam, but are simply an exercise for practice with the material. Use the following information to answer the next 2 questions : “Most people treat saliva with disdain, as a nuisance more than anything else,” says Irwin Mandel, professor emeritus at the School of  Dental and Oral Surgery at Columbia University. “They don’t realize how important it is. Those who have an absence of saliva are  miserable.” Beyond the annoyance of dry mouth, people without saliva have a hard time keeping their teeth from rotting away.   Spit has  buffers that keep the mouth’s pH slightly alkaline. Otherwise, the early stages of digestion that take place in the mouth would create an acid  environment ideal for tooth-eating bacteria. Saliva also has a high concentration of calcium and phosphate ions, the main ingredients of teeth. 1. Which of the following processes WILL NOT occur in both tooth cells and the bacteria that cause tooth-decay? a) ATP production in the cytoplasm b) Protein synthesis c) Formation of secretory vesicles d) Enzyme production e) Endocytosis and exocytosis 2. In the reaction rate figure on the right, which curve represents the tooth-eating bacteria? a) A b) B Use the following information to answer the next set of questions:   Seeds of plums, apricots, cherries, peaches and almonds contain a substance called amygdalin.  Amygdalin is responsible for the familiar tast and scent of bitter almonds.  Chemically it is a cyanogenic glycoside that can produce hydrogen  cyanide (HCN) whenever plant tissue containing it is crushed or damaged.  Also, HCN moelcules are released when the seeds are digested.  The production of HCN from amygdalin is facilitated by enzyme activity.  When the tissue is damaged or digested by an animal, the walls of  the compartments are destroyed, allowing the enzyme to bind with amygdalin and release the HCN.  In an animal, HCN molecules disrupt  the metabolic activity of the mitochondria because they stop the electron transport chain.   3. Seeds containing amygdalin have been eaten by insects.  Under what conditions will amygdalin be digested at the lowest (slowest) rate. a) Room temperature b) Insects outside on a cool fall day c) Insects in the garden on a hot summer day.
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