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American Classical League PERSEPHONE, PSYCHE, AND THE MOTHER-MAIDEN ARCHETYPE Author(s): JOHN F. MAKOWSKI Source: The Classical Outlook, Vol. 62, No. 3 (MARCH-APRIL 1985), pp. 73-78 Published by: American Classical League Stable URL: Accessed: 22-11-2019 02:56 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at American Classical League is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Classical Outlook This content downloaded from 169.232.70.29 on Fri, 22 Nov 2019 02:56:17 UTC All use subject to
THE CLASSICAL OUTLOOK / March-April 1985 73 PERSEPHONE, PSYCHE, AND THE MOTHER-MAIDEN ARCHETYPE JOHN F. MAKOWSKI Loyola University of Chicago While the figure of the Mother Goddess has always fascinated students of Greek myth and religion (Ver- nant, 1965, 102-31), the subject has in recent years generated an enormous amount of scholarly literature which has illuminated the goddess's role from a number of perspectives (Harding, 1971).* This ex- panding interest is due in part to exciting new devel- opments in the fields of psychology, anthropology, and women's studies, whose findings underscore the prom- inence of the Great Mother in the psychic and cultural life of humanity. Among the schools of thought that have produced some of the most provocative though not unchallenged ideas about the female figure in Greek myth is that of C.G.Jung and his adherents, who have found in the image of the Mother Goddess a fruitful field for the application of their theories con- cerning the relationship of myth to human conscious- ness, the development of the feminine psyche, and the role of woman in the family. This paper, while acknowledging that the Jungian approach to myth is only one of many and conceding that many of the school's contentions are open to ques- tion, has as its aim the examination of two narratives from classical antiquity which lend themselves very well to the Jungian mode of interpretation. The pur- pose here is not to argue the validity of one psycholog- ical theory over another but rather to illustrate how the application of Jungian ideas to myth can contribute to the appreciation of two familiar stories as embodied in two important works of classical literature. The narratives under consideration here are the myth of Demeter and Persephone as told in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and the Cupid and Psyche tale found in the Metamorphoses of Apuleius. These stories, though widely separated in time and in pur- pose, invite comparison for a number of reasons. Both of them have profound religious connections, the De- meter myth because of the Eleusinian mysteries

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