Nuclear-Chemistry-1.ppt - Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry \u2022 study of the chemical and physical properties of elements as influenced by changes in

Nuclear-Chemistry-1.ppt - Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear...

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Nuclear Chemistry
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2 study of the chemical and physical properties of elements as influenced by changes in the structure of the atomic nucleus . Modern nuclear chemistry, sometimes referred to as radiochemistry , has become very interdisciplinary in its applications, ranging from the study of the formation of the elements in the universe to the design of radioactive drugs for diagnostic medicine. Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear medicine labs in the hospitals use radioactive isotopes to diagnose disease, visualize organs, and treat tumors.
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3 12 6 C mass number ( A ) atomic number ( Z ) the number of protons + the number of neutrons mass number ( A ) number of protons number of neutrons 6 12 – 6 = 6 atomic number ( Z ) = the number of protons =
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4 Nuclear Chemistry Introduction Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element having a different number of neutrons .
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5 Nuclear Chemistry Introduction Isotopes Of the known isotopes of all elements, 264 are stable and 300 are naturally occurring but unstable. A radioactive isotope , called a radioisotope , is unstable and spontaneously emits energy to form a more stable nucleus. Radioactivity is the nuclear radiation emitted by a radioactive isotope. An even larger number of radioactive isotopes, called artificial isotopes , have been produced in the laboratory.
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6 Nuclear Chemistry Introduction Types of Radiation An alpha particle is a high-energy particle that contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons . alpha particle: or 4 2 He It has a +2 charge and a mass number of 4. Types of radiation: alpha particles, beta particles, positrons, and gamma radiation.
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7 Nuclear Chemistry Introduction Types of Radiation A beta particle is a high-energy electron . beta particle: β or 0 −1 e It has a −1 charge and a negligible mass compared to a proton. has a charge of -1, and a mass of 0.00055 amu. A β particle ( is formed when a neutron ( n ) is converted to a proton (p) and an electron (e). 1 0 n 1 1 p neutron proton + 0 −1 e particle
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8 Nuclear Chemistry Introduction Types of Radiation A positron is called an antiparticle of a β particle. Their charges are opposite , but their masses are the same (i.e., effectively zero). A positron has a +1 charge and is called a “positive electron.” positron: β + or 0 +1 e A positron is formed when a proton is converted to a neutron. 1 0 n 1 1 p neutron proton + 0 +1 e positron
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9 Nuclear Chemistry Introduction Types of Radiation Gamma rays are high-energy radiation released from a radioactive nucleus. gamma ray: They are a form of energy, so they have no mass and no charge.
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10 Radioactivity cannot be detected by the senses, yet it can have a powerful effect.
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