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MOOD DISORDERS, SUICIDE AND PERSONALITY DISORDERSAmy Polzin, RN, MSN
LEARNING OUTCOMES•Define and describe the concept of Mood and Affect•Notice risk factors for mood disturbances•Recognize when an individual is experiencing a mood disturbance.•Provide appropriate nursing and collaborative interventions to minimize the impact of mood spectrum disorders. •Discuss etiologic theories of depression and bipolar disorder. •Describe the risk factors for and characteristics of mood disorders. •Apply the nursing process to the care of clients and families with mood disorders. •Provide education to clients, families, caregivers, and community members to increase knowledge and understanding of mood disorders. •Identify populations at risk for suicide. •Apply the nursing process to the care of a suicidal client. •Evaluate your feelings, beliefs, and attitudes regarding mood disorders and suicide.
LEARNING OUTCOMES CONT.•Explain what is meant by psychosomatic illness.•Describe somatic symptom illnesses and identify three central features. •Discuss the etiologic theories related to somatic symptom illnesses. •Discuss the characteristics and dynamics of specific somatic symptom illnesses. •Distinguish somatic symptom illnesses from factitious disorders and malingering. •Apply the nursing process to the care of clients with somatic symptom illnesses. •Provide education to clients, families, and the community to increase knowledge and understanding of somatic symptom disorders. •Evaluate your feelings, beliefs, and attitudes regarding clients with somatic symptom disorders.
DEFINITION OF MOOD•The term moodis defined as the way a person feels. The term affectis defined as the observable response a person has to his or her own feelings. •The mood spectrum is a continuum, or spectrum, of all possible moods that any person may experience. Mood disturbances disrupt an individual’s ability to function normally.
SCOPE OF MOOD AND AFFECT
PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES•Reduced blood flow and abnormal phosphorus metabolism in the prefrontal aspect of the cerebral cortex•Disturbed activity in neurotransmitters of the brain •Dopamine •Norepinephrine •Serotonin
CONSEQUENCES: MOOD SPECTRUM DISORDERS•Change in interpersonal relationships•Limited productivity•Reduced functional ability •Higher use and need for medical care•Increased potential for suicide
RISK FACTORS•Populations at greatest risk•Females•Individuals in the second and sixth decades of life•Individual risk factors•Stress, early trauma, neglect, abuse, family history, comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders, personality disorders, substance dependence
RECOGNIZING SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS•Affective instability may present as any combination of the following behaviors: •Agitation•Sadness•Elation •Blunting•Speech may be in a monotone during blunting, and responses may be unusually brief
ASSESSMENT•Nurses should know the common indicators of these key findings •Persistent mood disturbance•Disturbed vegetative functioning•Functional impairment