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Unformatted text preview: Event Management DMGT304 EVENT MANAGEMENT Copyright © 2012 Shailly Nigam All rights reserved Produced & Printed by EXCEL BOOKS PRIVATE LIMITED A-45, Naraina, Phase-I, New Delhi-110028 for Directorate of Distance Education Lovely Professional University Phagwara SYLLABUS Event Management Objectives: The course aims at making the students acquire an in-depth knowledge about the specialized field of "event management" and to become familiar with management techniques and strategies required for successful planning, promotion, implementation and evaluation of special events. S. No. Topics 1. Event Management: Introduction: Size of Event, Types, Event Team, Code of Ethics, Concept and Design of Events. 2. Event Feasibility and Legal Compliance. 3. Marketing and Promotion of the Event. 4. Financial and Risk Management. 5. Planning for Events-preparation for Event Proposal. 6. Protocol and Staging. 7. Staffing, Leadership. 8. Operations, Logistic, Safety & Security management, Crowd Management and Evacuation. 9. Monitoring, Control and Evaluation. 10. Careers in Event Management. CONTENTS Unit 1: An Introduction to Event Management 1 Unit 2: Concept and Design of Events 40 Unit 3: Event Feasibility and Legal Compliance 61 Unit 4: Marketing and Promotion of the Event 75 Unit 5: Financial Management 113 Unit 6: Risk Management 131 Unit 7: Planning for Events and Event Proposal 147 Unit 8: Protocol and Staging 183 Unit 9: Staffing 196 Unit 10: Leadership 219 Unit 11: Operations, Logistics, Safety and Security Management 240 Unit 12: Crowd Management and Evacuation 255 Unit 13: Monitoring, Control and Evaluation 269 Unit 14: Careers in Event Management 280 Unit 1: An Introduction to Event Management Unit 1: An Introduction to Event Management Notes CONTENTS Objectives Introduction 1.1 1.2 Event – Definition, Need and Importance 1.1.1 Definition 1.1.2 Need and Importance of Events Event Management 1.2.1 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Event Management – Concept 1.3.1 Activities in Event Management 1.3.2 Sustainable-event Management Conceptualising – Creating and Developing Events 1.4.1 Advertising 1.4.2 Public Relations 1.4.3 Stunts 1.4.4 Invitation 1.4.5 Marketing Thrust 1.4.6 Miscellaneous Size of Events 1.5.1 Stretching the Limits of the Event 1.5.2 How to Determine the Size of Your Event? Types of Events 1.6.1 Event Organizer 1.6.2 Types of Sports Events Events Team 1.7.1 Team Management 1.7.2 Team Management Skills 1.7.3 Managing Discipline 1.7.4 Challenges of Teamwork Event Team Management 1.8.1 1.9 Event Management Procedures Structure of an Event Management Team Event Management Information System 1.10 Code of Ethics 1.11 Summary 1.12 Keywords 1.13 Review Questions 1.14 Further Readings LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY 1 Event Management Notes Objectives After studying this unit, you should be able to:  Know the Definition, Need and Importance of Events  Discuss the Term Event Management  Identify the steps involved in Event Management Procedures  Explain the Concept of an Event  Know and tell the size of a Event Introduction There are various companies hosting and organizing events on a usual basis. These range from the small time private events to the large-scale international events. Although, the large scales one do happen far rarer, but then the amount of returns they turn out is far beyond expectations. Though, in the past there have been events that have also resulted in losses to the hosts and sponsors for varied reasons. But then, all said and done, event management is concerning organization and execution, and that is precisely where the money lies. Those in the field are paid for their services. 1.1 Event – Definition, Need and Importance 1.1.1 Definition  Event can refer to a phenomenon, any observable occurrence, or an extraordinary occurrence.  Marketing Guru, Philip Kotler, defines events as occurrences designed to communicate particular messages to target audiences. Suresh Pillai, Managing Director, Eventus Management, considers events as an additional media whereby two-way or active communication is possible. 1.1.2 Need and Importance of Events The purpose of the event should drive all the planning. Example: if you were running a conference for financial planners there could be two quite different purposes: 1. To facilitate an exchange of information, bringing participants up-to-date with the latest changes in financial planning software products. 2. To achieve a memorable out-of-body experience for financial planners in order to develop a positive association with a new software product. To achieve the first purpose would be quite straight forward as this would require a fairly standard meeting or convention. Fulfilling the second purpose however would be more difficult. For this unforgettable experience you would need a unique venue and carefully planned activities that the participants would enjoy. At the same time the product would need to be reinforced constantly so that attendees would leave with an inescapable association with it. To have fun without the positive association would defeat the purpose. The focus of the first of these purposes 2 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY Unit 1: An Introduction to Event Management is information, whereas that of the second is entertainment. Although of any events the main purpose is making a profit, for many it is not. This festival is an example of an event with a community purpose. Notes ! Caution Staging an event should be clear and articulate up front . There may be a number of reasons for conducting an event such as: 1. To inform and educate the community about a cause 2. To obtain media coverage for an activity or organisation 3. To raise funds 4. To celebrate a community’s strength and cohesiveness 5. An awards or presentation ceremony 1.2 Event Management Management of events has traditionally been alluded to as a post marketing activity and assigned the classic production responsibility as in any manufacturing firm. The term management of events therefore carries a totally different connotation when used in the context of events. Management theory would suggest that marketing is also a part of management. Management of an event encompasses all activities involved in planning, organizing, staffing, leading and evaluation of an event. Did u know? All operational task for an event such as the ground work, viz., venue selection and stage design, arranging the infrastructural facilities required, liaison with artists/ performers and networking with other activities such as advertising, PR, ticket sales, etc., fall under the purview of event management. 1.2.1 Event Management Procedures Event managers must ensure that event management procedures cover a full range of emergencies including major injury or illness of players or spectators, fire, bomb threat, crowd disturbances and climatic conditions such as lightning, torrential rain, flooding, etc. Event manage procedures should also assist event personnel to effectively do their job. Although the most important procedures will be about safety, there should be other procedures that lessen risks to the event profitability and the organisation’s reputation. These procedures might include:  Cash management  Food serving and hygiene  Waste collection  Marshaling of competitors  Restriction of access to certain areas  Arrival and greeting of visiting dignitaries LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY 3 Event Management Notes  Loudspeaker announcements during the event  Giveaways of merchandising or free food and drink  Raffles and fundraising  Interviewing Event Staff The provision of training to event staff (and volunteers) is a critical element in risk management. It is a dangerous situation to presume that procedures have been read and that people will know what to do in an emergency. Ultimately the buck stops with the Event Manager and therefore it is a reasonable use of the Event Manager’s time to have meetings with Event Staff, either individually or in groups, to determine their knowledge of procedure. Event management is the planning and management of an event, project or activity. It is important when staging an event to be clear about WHY the event is being held:  To inform and educate the community about a cause;  To obtain media coverage for an activity;  To raise funds; and  To celebrate a community’s strength and cohesiveness. Organizers should also clarify WHO the event is for. Most events will cater for a variety of interest groups: 1. The local community; 2. Members; 3. Sponsors; 4. Media; and 5. Potential members. Regardless of the nature of the event, your target audience or the event’s objectives, some key steps should be followed to help ensure a successful event. Today, there a number of people, who have entered the field because they realize the potential of the market where demand and supply is concerned. In fact, the most profitable aspect of this field is the need for creativity. And that is how and where one earns. Event management generally means conceptualizing, meticulous planning, organizing and finally executing an event. It is a set plan involving networking of a multimedia package, thereby achieving the client’s objectives and justifying their needs for associating with events. Self Assessment Fill in the blanks: 4 1. ................................ is concerning organization and execution, and that is precisely where the money lies. 2. ................................ can refer to a phenomenon, any observable occurrence, or an extraordinary occurrence. 3. The term management of events therefore carries a totally ................................ connotation when used in the context of events. LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY Unit 1: An Introduction to Event Management 4. Management theory would suggest that marketing is also a part of ................................ 5. Management of an event encompasses all activities involved in planning, organizing, staffing, leading and ................................ of an event. Notes 1.3 Event Management – Concept The concept of Event management is all about applying project management to the creation and development of festivals, events and conferences. It focuses on studying the intricacies of the brand, recognizing the target audience, devising the event concept, planning the logistics and coordinating the technical aspects prior to actually executing the modalities of the proposed event. Post-event analysis and ensuring a return on investment have become chief drivers for the event industry. 1.3.1 Activities in Event Management In event, activities usually vary with the category of event being organized. Therefore, the following listing is generic in nature. Once marketing has managed to convert an enquiry into a firm order, the hands-on work of event management begins. The following is a sequential flow of how management actually happens, i.e. How planning, organizing, staffing, etc., get together for an event. The flow is divided into three sections:  the first deals with the pre-event activities,  the second with the during-event activities and  the last details the post-event activities involved. This theory states that the functions of management can be classified into planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling.  Planning: The planning function is involved in micro-level event coordination activities such as liaison with the creative team discussing, facilitating and arranging for the technical specifications viz., sound, light, stages and sets.  Organizing: Organizing in the context of event management essentially involves the description of the activities required for an event, identifying individual and team tasks and distribution of responsibilities to coordinators. Such as exercises helps in creating an intentional structure for clarity or roles and positions.  Staffing: Functional responsibilities in a project type organization structure define event management staffing requirements. The importance of team structure, experience, background and expertise of team members plays a crucial role in event management.  Leading and coordination: The sum and substance of events as a whole revolves around interpersonal skills. The need for achieving synergy among individual efforts so that the team goal is reached is the main aim of coordination. The overall coordinators need to be leaders with fantastic people skills. The leadership qualities desired of an event manager include the ability to spot a deal and think on one’s feet.  Controlling: Evaluation and correction of deviations in the event plans to ensure conformity with original plans is the gist of controlling. Evaluation is an activity that seeks to understand and measure the extent to which an event has succeeded in achieving its purpose. The purpose of an event will differ with respect to the category and variation of event. However, to provide reach and interaction would be a generic purpose that events satisfy. LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY 5 Event Management Notes The basic evaluation process in events involves three steps viz.,  establishing tangible objectives  incorporating sensitivity in evaluation; measuring the performance before, during and after the event a lastly correcting deviations from plans. 1.3.2 Sustainable-event Management Environmental sensitivity is important for two major reasons. First, it is the right thing to do. When allocating scarce resources for an event, remember that no resource is as scarce as the environment in which we live, work, and play. Second, clients are increasingly requesting that every event meet or exceed certain environmental standards. Major corporations have been criticized by their customers for not demonstrating enough sensitivity to the environment. Therefore, when these corporations retain you to manage an event, they want you to reflect their renewed commitment to environmental concerns. The best way to accomplish this is to clearly define the organization’s environmental policy and then incorporate these policies into your event environment design and operations. Event sponsors who practice recycling in all likelihood will want recycling bins at an event they sponsor. Event sponsors who do not use foam products for disposable serving utensils will not want you to specify these items in your catering orders. Meet with the key environmental policy person for the organization sponsoring your event and determine with his or her help how to incorporate such policies within the event environment. Notes Why not create your own policies? To ensure that events enjoy sustainable growth, it is important for you to establish your own environmental policies that will demonstrate to prospective event sponsors your knowledge and sensitivity regarding these issues. These policies need not be repressive. However, they must be consistent. Do not alter your policies merely to satisfy the budget considerations for the event. Instead, seek creative solutions such as finding a sponsor for the recycling station to make certain that your environmental ideals are well protected at every event. Recycle your Success In the exposition event field a growing trend is the recycling to local schools of leftover materials such as paper, pens, pencils, and other reusable supplies. Usually, these items end up in the dumpster when only a few blocks from the venue there may be a school with children who cannot afford these basic supplies. You may wish to incorporate this program in your agreements to inform your sponsor of your policy of recycling your success to help others. Many event sponsors recycle leftover food products to local homeless shelters or food distribution agencies. This assures your guests that you are committed to sharing the success of your banquet with those less fortunate. Some venues require the recipients to sign a hold-harmless form; however, regardless of the legal technicality, this opportunity to feed others should be seized for every event. Still another way to recycle your success is to build into your event a project to benefit a local organization. Some event organizers provide a day before or after the event to clean up a local playground, paint a school, or perform some other community service using the skills of the attendees at the event. To arrange this activity, contact the volunteer center in the local community. The office of the mayor is a good place to start to locate the local volunteer 6 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY Unit 1: An Introduction to Event Management coordinating organization. Tell the office what resources you are bringing to their destination and then apply your success to help others. Notes Inspiration and Perspiration Although the design phase provides inspiration, it also expands and tests the limits of research. At the conclusion of the design phase the event manager should have a clear idea of the needs and desires of event stakeholders. The goals and objectives that were identified in the research phase represent the skeletal structure in the anatomy of an event, and the flexible elements identified in the design phase represent the musculature needed to move event research forward. Now it is time to add the cardiovascular system to give and sustain life for the event. This is the beginning of the event’s life, and the primary organ that will sustain this life is the event strategic plan. Task Gather more information on the fact that cardiovascular system give and sustain life for the event. 1.4 Conceptualising – Creating and Developing Events While creating and developing events, one should always consider the five basic promotion techniques. There are five typical or traditional techniques used to promote events. These techniques include advertising, public relations, cross promotions, street promotions, and stunts. Some events use only one of these techniques; others may use all of them to ensure that their message is received and acted upon by their target market. 1.4.1 Advertising Advertising includes print and electronic media, transportation media (such as bus and rail), advertising specialties (calendars, key rings, coffee mugs, and other products), and outdoor media (billboards). Larger events may use many of these media resources, while smaller events may carefully target their message to one or two media. Print advertising is not limited to magazines and newspapers. It may also include membership directories, inserts in local newspapers, flyers (sometimes called one sheets), posters, church and synagogue newsletters, brochures, and virtually any printed media. When analyzing your print advertising needs, make certain that you test your advertising product in advance with a small distribution to test its effectiveness. Specialists in direct mail recommend that you use a split test approach. This requires that you mail one type of advertising printed matter to one group and a different type to another to test the best response from both types. Varying items such as the colour of the ink, copy, type and weight of the paper, or other decisions may produce different results. Test your print advertising using focus groups to make certain that your event product is well positioned for success. Classic advertising terms such as free, discount, now, sale, and new may help you influence the consumer to invest in your event. Clever graphics, endorsements, testimonials, and other credibility-building devices will help differentiate your event product from others. Electronic media include radio, television, the Internet, and any form of advertising that involves electronic delivery. Radio advertising is typically used to remind the listener about the event, whereas television is used to build excitement. The Internet is an excellent means with which to reach upscale consumers and those who are interested in science, technology, and travel. Before you select electronic ...
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