EXAM 1 review sheet.pdf - FA18 PSY 201 Section 3(9 Exam 1 Review Sheet Chapter 1 • Definition of psychology o • The scientific study of behavior and

EXAM 1 review sheet.pdf - FA18 PSY 201 Section 3(9 Exam 1...

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FA18 PSY 201 Section 3(9) Exam 1 Review Sheet Chapter 1 Definition of psychology o The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Theories o Definition A set of hypothesized statements about the relationships among events o Purposes Theories allow us to derive explanations and predictions o Relationships to facts and hypotheses Start with set of facts, observe the facts that seem related, guess why they are related, hypothesize, test hypothesis, passes, support for hypothesis and eventually theory Pure v. applied research o Pure Most psychologists do pure research, don’t have a reason for studying, do it for sake of knowing, enhances tomorrow’s way of life o Applied Do it to find answer to personal or social problems Study to use in History of psychology o Three early schools Names, order, and influences Structuralism ! “what are the pieces that make up thinking and experience” ! Oldest ! Chemistry ! Structure of conscious thought
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! Influenced by periodic table of elements Periodic table of consciousness Functionalism ! Study how our experiences help us function more adaptively in our environments ! Biology ! Care about why we have our conscious thoughts ! Influenced by Darwins theory of natural selection ! Focus on behavior as well as the mind or consciousness ! “how do behavior and mental processes help people adapt to the requirements of their lives?” Behaviorism ! Physics ! Don’t like in thoughts and consciousness ! Only observe what they see ! Focus on stimulus response relationship ! It must limit itself to observable, measurable events to behavior alone o Gestalt psychologists Patterns (wholes) rather than bits and pieces We see the big picture first You cant understand something if you look at the individual pieces first we must look at the big picture o Psychoanalysis Focus on trying to understand unconscious processes Emphasize the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts s determinants of human behavior Contemporary perspectives o Eclectic view
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Six approaches to explaining behavior 1. Biological ! Results form brain chemistry or the structure of the brain itself Functioning of the brain Endocrine system Hereditary Behavior and mental processes 2. Cognitive ! Based off of free will YOU CHOOSE (doesnt matter the environment) Sensation, perception, memory, intelligence, language, thought and problem solving 3. Psychodynamic ! Based on unconsciousness ! A way to liberate the expression of their unconscious ideas 4. Humanistic- existential ! Cognitive yet emphasizes the role of personal experience 5. Sociocultural ! Based off of the way society sees you gender, age, ethnicity, culture, socioeconomic 6. Learning ! Behaviors are a result of being conditioned ! Imitating behavior ! Social cognitive theory Research in psychology o Scientific method o Sampling
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Sample Part of the population we want to study; need to be able to generalize back to population
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