Handout RCHO & RCOR.doc - ALDEHYDES AND KETONES 1 Structure and Reactive Site The functional group >C=O is known as carbonyl group The reactive

Handout RCHO & RCOR.doc - ALDEHYDES AND KETONES 1...

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ALDEHYDES AND KETONES 1. Structure and Reactive Site The functional group, >C=O, is known as carbonyl group The reactive sites are the partially positive carbonyl carbon and the partially negative oxygen C=O + Nu The carbonyl C is sp 2 hybridized hence >C=O is trigonal planar. A nucleophile can approach the carbonyl carbon from the front or back side of the plane The reactivity of the carbonyl compounds is dependent on the positivity of the carbonyl carbon. Hence C=O H H C=O R R C=O R H Increasing Reactivity 2. Common Names of Aldehydes and Ketones A. Aldehydes: Trivial rootword + aldehyde Examples: a HCHO Form aldehyde b CH 3 CHO Acet aldehyde c CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 2 CHO CH 3 -methylvaler aldehyde B. Ketones: Alkyl-1 Alkyl-2 ketone a O Ethyl methyl ketone b O Ethyl isopropyl ketone c O Benzyl phenyl ketone Ketones: Some do not follow the conventional method of naming a O Acetone b O CH 3 Acetophenone c O Benzophenone 3. Physical Properties 1
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