PSYCH CH8.pptx - Chapter 8 Development Across the Lifespan...

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Chapter 8: Development Across the Lifespan
Human Development – the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception to death. Nature: the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions Nurture: the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions Behavioral genetics: focuses on nature vs. nurture
Table 8.1 A Comparison of Three Developmental Research Designs Research Designs Objective Description Cross-Sectional Design Different participants of various ages are compared at one point in time to determine age-related differences . Group One: 20-year-old participants Group Two: 40-year-old participants Group Three: 60-year-old participants (research done in 2014) Longitudinal Design The same participants are studied at various ages to determine age-related changes . Study One: 20-year-old participants (1974) Study Two: Same participants at 40 years old (1994) Study Three: Same participants are now 60 years old (2014) Cross- Sequential Design Different participants of various ages are compared at several points in time to determine both age- related differences and age-related changes. Study One: Group One : 20-year-old participants Group Two : 40-year-old participants (2014) Study Two: Group One : Participants will be 25 years old; Group Two : Participants will be 45 years old (to be done in 2019)
The Basic Building Blocks of Development Genetics: the science of inherited traits Behavioral genetics DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism
Figure 8.1 DNA Molecule In this model of a DNA molecule, the two strands making up the sides of the “twisted ladder” are composed of sugars and phosphates. The “rungs” of the ladder that link the two strands are amines. Amines contain the genetic codes for building the proteins that make up organic life.
The Basic Building Blocks of Development cont. Gene : section of DNA having a certain pattern of chemical elements Dominant : a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait Recessive : a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene
Inherited Disorders PKU 1 in 10,000-20,000 (baby unable to make use of phenylalanine, an essential amino acid present in proteins found in milk/other foods. Down Syndrome (presence of an extra chromosome on the 21 st pair) 1 in 700; mongolism – old term; mental retardation Fragile X (injury of a particular gene on X) results in mild to moderate mental retardation Sickle-cell Anemia 1/10 th of African American descent carry the gene, 1 out of 400 actually have the disease. Severe cases die in childhood.

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