This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Risk Factors and Substance Abuse Chapter 8 Creating a Wellness Lifestyle KINE 2202-05 Pamela G. Landin, MS, ATC Wellness Lifestyle
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Be physically active No tobacco use Eat healthy Maintain recommended body weight Get 7-8 hours of sleep each night Decrease stress level Drink alcohol in moderation or not at all Surround self with healthy relationships Avoid environmental risk factors Take personal safety measures Spiritual Well-being 7 dimensions of wellness: physical, emotional, intellectual, social, environmental, occupational and spiritual Spirituality Definition incorporates all people and assumes all people are spiritual in nature Basic characteristics Sense of meaning and direction in life A relationship to a higher being Freedom Prayer Faith Love Closeness to others Peace Joy Fulfillment Altruism Figure 8.1 Causes of Death Of all U.S. deaths, 57% caused by CV disease and cancer 80% of those deaths could be prevented if a healthy lifestyle was followed Chronic lower respiratory disease and accidents (3rd and 4th leading causes of death, respectively) could be prevented by not smoking and, for example, wearing a seat belt Figure 8.2 Cardiovascular Disease Most prevalent diseases in the U.S. today 2003 stats: 35% of all deaths were from diseases of heart and blood vessels Examples: Coronary heart disease Heart attack Peripheral vascular disease Congenital heart disease Rheumatic heart disease Atherosclerosis Strokes High BP Congestive heart failure Cardiovascular Disease Coronary Heart Disease
Arteries that supply the heart with blood (oxygen and nutrients) are narrowed by fatty deposits like cholesterol and triglycerides Single leading cause of death in the U.S. Causes 20% of all deaths and half of all CV deaths Greater incidence of CHD in the least educated part of the population Cardiovascular Disease CHD risk factors Physical inactivity High BP Excessive body fat Low HDL cholesterol High LDL cholesterol High triglycerides High homocysteine Inflammation Diabetes Abnormal ECGs Tobacco use Stress Age Family history of CV disease gender Physical Inactivity Can improve cardiorespiratory endurance through aerobic activity Reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease Increase cardiorespiratory endurance Decrease and control BP Reduce body fat Lower blood lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) Improve HDL cholesterol Decrease low-grade inflammation in body Help control or decrease risk of diabetes Increase and maintain good heart function Encourage stopping smoking Alleviate stress Counteract a personal hx of heart disease Aerobic Exercise will Hypertension Measured in mm of Mercury (mm Hg) Systolic Diastolic Ideal BP is 120/80 or below Hypertension starts at 140/90 Control Exercise best way to reduce high BP Diet (low salt, low fat, high potassium and calcium) Medications 95% of men and 75% of women exceed limit of 2,300 mg/ day which is the UI level! RDA is 1,500 mg Salt intake Abnormal Cholesterol Levels Blood lipids reference to cholesterol and triglycerides Lipoproteins how blood lipids travel throughout body Lipid panel Includes total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides Total cholesterol levels should be below 200mg/dl 200-239 considered borderline high 240+ is considered at high risk for disease Abnormal Cholesterol Levels HDL vs. LDL HDL actually removes cholesterol from body and prevents plaque from forming LDL does the opposite; creates cholesterol to sit in arteries and eventually cause plaque to form Speeds up process of atherosclerosis Low HDL and high LDL is best predictor or CHD; not total cholesterol levels HDL level is generally hereditary; higher in women than men, higher in menopausal women (due to elevated estrogen) and lower in African American children and adult men than white children and men. HDL level decreases with age Abnormal Cholesterol Levels Increasing HDL cholesterol Habitual exercise Weight loss Niacin Quitting smoking Losing body fat Manipulating the diet low saturated fat, cholesterol and trans fatty acids; high fiber Taking medication Regular aerobic exercise Lowering LDL cholesterol Caution to very low-fat diets Guidelines p. 179 Abnormal Cholesterol Levels Elevated Triglycerides Also known as free fatty acids Combined with cholesterol = formation of plaque Found in Poultry skin, lunch meats, shellfish Refined sugars, starches, alcohol Cut down on pastries, candies, soft drinks, fruit juices, white bread, pasta, alcohol, plus above Decrease overall fat consumption, quit smoking, reducing weight, aerobic exercise Desirable level is 150 mg/dl Abnormal Cholesterol Levels Elevated Homocysteine Not a blood lipid, but newly linked to plaque accumulation in arteries High in many people either due to inability to metabolize or lack of vitamins needed to remove from body Accumulation is theorized to be toxic: Causes damage to artery inner lining Stimulates the production of other cells that increase plaque formation Increases clotting of arteries Eat recommended amounts of veggies, fruits, grains and some meats to remove from system Also get 400 mcg/day folate Abnormal Cholesterol Levels Inflammation Type that is hidden deep in the blood vessels of the body Frequent cause of heart attacks, even with low cholesterol May be a better predictor to the risk of heart attack that just high cholesterol C-reactive protein (CRP) Protein that increases with increased inflammation New test: high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) Measures inflammation in blood vessels Approved by FDA Increased CRP due to obesity, excessive alcohol intake, high protein diets, excess intake of fast-food meals Diabetes Mellitus Where blood glucose is incapable to entering cells because the pancreas stops producing insulin or does not produce enough Insulin helps glucose enter the body's cells > 75% of people with Diabetes die from CV disease P. 181 effects of chronically high blood sugar Type I juvenile diabetes; pancreas produces very little or no insulin at all Type II associated with overeating, obesity and physical inactivity; accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes cases; cells reject insulin made by body or pancreas does not make a sufficient amount Control with diet - p. 181 Physical activity Metabolic Syndrome Caused by a chronic rise in insulin Conditions include: Low HDL-cholesterol High triglycerides Increased blood-clotting mechanism High BP Have abnormal insulin response to carbs; especially carbs absorbed rapidly Pay attention to not eat too many carbs, getting 45% of carbs from diet Helps to lose weight if overweight, exercise regularly and quit smoking Smoking increases insulin resistance Tobacco Use 47 million U.S. adults & 3.5 million teens +3,000 new teenage smokers each day! Single, largest preventable cause of death and disease in the U.S. today 53,000 of 435,000 smoking deaths each year are from contact to second-hand smoke Speeds up atherosclerosis Increases risk of sudden death after myocardial infarction Increases HR, BP and irritates heart = fatal cardiac arrhythmias Smoking one pack of cigarettes is like the same as smoking 50-75 pounds of extra body fat! Decreases HDL cholesterol Pipe smoking, cigar smoking and chewing tobacco all increase the risk for heart disease as well Other Risks Stress Personal and Family History Age and Gender Cancer Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Both control cell formation Mutant cells develop when nuclei lose their ability to regulate and control cell growth If cells grow abnormally and out of control, a tumor is formed
Benign malignant Cancer Causes 23% of all deaths in the U.S. Over 100 types of cancer Some cells that develop with defective DNA, will not be fixed by specialized enzymes Cell will keep multiplying One cell can multiply up to 100 times As more mutations occur, a malignant tumor forms When a tumor reaches 1 million cells it is called carcinoma in situ before it spreads; these can go undetected Once the tumor starts to produce chemicals that enhance angiogenesis, the cells break off the tumor and travel to other spots in the body, causes new cancerous cells (metastasis) Death occurs when the body can no longer keep up with the uncontrollably dividing cancerous cells Treatments (chemotherapy) at times successful, but some cells can become resistant to medication Cancer 80% of all human cancer is directly related to lifestyle or environmental factors
Diet Tobacco use Excessive alcohol use Sexual and reproductive activity Exposure to environmental hazards Prevention of Cancer Dietary Changes 1/3 of all cancers related to nutrition High in fiber, low in fat Eating broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and brussel sprouts; tea, soy products, calcium and omega-3 fats, beans, OJ (vitamin C) Keep protein within recommended limits Alcohol should be in moderation if at all Antioxidants have significant effect to remove free radicals that can cause cancer Increased fiber decreases risk of colon cancer Prevention of Cancer Phytochemicals
Found in fruits and veggies Blocks the formation of tumors and disrupts process at every step of formation Blood levels drop within 3 hours of consuming Polyphenols/phytochemicals are known to black the formation of nitrosamines Cancer-causing compounds that are formed from chemicals proceed in meats that are in place to prevent bacteria from forming in the meat Green tea Prevention of Cancer Other dietary factors High fat intake promotes cancer (fast food!) <20% of daily fat intake to prevent cancer Omega-3 fats block formation of prostaglandins, which form tumors Vitamin C (antioxidant affects) Cooking Meat Grilling at high temps for long periods of time (almost charring) = form of carcinogens Microwave for a few minutes first when cooking with meat, do not keep fluid meat releases Remove skin and cook at lower heat Avoiding Significant Sun Exposure Excessive exposure to UVA and UVB rays is the major contributor to skin cancer Most common sites are face, neck and back of hands Three types Basal cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Malignant melanoma 1 of every 6 U.S. citizen will develop a form of skin cancer No such thing as a "healthy tan" Sun Exposure UVB rays = a stinging tan; causes premature aging, wrinkling and cancer UVA rays = in tanning parlors/salons, now found to cause melanoma SPF
Sun Protection Factor At least SPF 15 = fifteen times longer for sun to burn Past SPF 30 is pointless Reapply EVERY HOUR, despite SPF level Work Hazards and Physical Activity Work Hazards Asbestos Radiation Uranium dust Coal Use of cigarettes increases chances for severe reactions to there (increased risk for cancer) Protective effect against cancer Increases ability of autoimmune system 30 min. or more a day Physical Activity Early Detection of Cancer Best to catch early Want to treat cancer before spreading to other parts of the body Periodic screening Warning Signals (p. 189 orange box) Other risk factors High stress (decreased autoimmune function) Genetics (10% increase in susceptibility) Environment (includes lifestyle habits and exposure) Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease All diseases of respiratory system (chronic bronchitis, emphysema); diseases limiting air flow Incidence of CLRDs increase with use of smoked tobacco and exposure to some types of industrial pollution Some genetic factors (with emphysema) Accidents Fourth leading cause of death in U.S. Proper nutrition, exercise, abstaining from smoking and stress management pointless if in an accident Do not just "happen"; we can cause them Some out of our control (natural disasters, plane crashes) Most from poor judgment and a confused mental state Alcohol is the #1 cause of fatal automobile accidents Substance Abuse Includes alcohol, hard drugs and cigarettes This includes abuse of drugs for athletic and physical means Discussion on Alcohol Marijuana Cocaine Methamphetamine Heroin MDMA Alcohol 7/10 adults in the U.S. are drinkers 18/100 million drinkers are alcohol dependent and suffer from alcoholism Physical affects: decreased peripheral vision, impaired hearing and vision, slows reaction time, decreases concentration and motor performance, decreases sexual function, impaired judgment of distance and speed, lessens fear, increases risk-taking, induces sleep and stimulates urination Discuss physiologic affects of alcohol in chapter 9 Marijuana Pot or grass Most common illegal drug in U.S. Initial studies from the 1960s say the pot is safe, but today's marijuana is at least 10x stronger Effects Brain damage Susceptibility to infectious diseases Chronic bronchitis Lung cancer Sterility and impotence Cocaine Thought to be harmless until two basketball players in the 1980s died from a cocaine overdose Similar to pot Typically snorted into nasal cavity Effects Loss of appetite Digestive disorders Weight loss Malnutrition Insomnia Confusion Anxiety Cocaine psychosis paranoia and hallucinations Sudden death from respiratory paralysis, cardiac arrhythmias, severe convulsions and people who lack the enzyme to metabolize cocaine Methamphetamine Meth or crystal meth Fastest growing drug in U.S. Readily dissolvable into water or alcohol CNS stimulant Easily manufactured in a meth lab (be careful of explosions!) Causes feelings of well-being, decreases appetite, increases motor activity, decreases fatigue and need for sleep Also causes increase in HR, body temp, BP, breath rate, hyperactivity, tremors, violent behavior High doses cause irritability, paranoia, permanent damage to blood vessels in brain (causes strokes) and can cause sudden death from hyperthermia and convulsions Chronic abuse leads to insomnia, confusion, hallucinations, inflammation of heart lining, schizophrenia-like mental disorders, brain-cell damage similar to damage caused by a stroke Leads to symptoms of Parkinson's disease, due to decreased levels of dopamine Heroin Diesel, Dope, Dynamite, White Death, Nasty Boy, China White, H. Harry, Gumball, Junk, Brown Sugar, Smack, Tootsie Roll, Black Tar, Chasing the Dragon No way to determine strength of drug purchased Causes a state of euphoria Can be injected for quicker affects Is a sedative, causing relaxation and no pain reception If inhaled, can cause nausea, vomiting, intense itching and severe asthma attack initially with effects of drowsiness, confusion and reduced cardiac function and breathing rate Overdose can cause convulsions, coma and death Heroin Withdrawal occurs within 4-5 hours after drug is taken Withdrawal is painful and may last up to two weeks or a few months! Symptoms of withdrawal: red/raw nostrils, bone and muscle pains, muscle spasms and cramps, sweating, hot and cold flashes, runny nose, drowsiness, sluggishness, slurred speech, loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, restlessness and violent yawning Can kill an unborn baby or cause a spontaneous abortion Long-term effects: hallucinations, nightmares, constipation, sexual difficulties, impaired vision, reduced fertility, boils, collapsed veins and an elevated risk for lung, liver and CV disease; also increased risk for infection in blood vessels and heart valves MDMA Ecstasy, X-TC, X, E, Adam and love drug Named for chemical structure: 3, 4methylenedioxymethamphetamine Immediate effects: rapid eye movement, faintness, blurred vision, chills, sweating, nausea, muscle tension and teeth-grinding Increases BP, HR and body temp; can lead to kidney failure, heart attack, stroke and seizures ...
View Full Document
- Spring '08