oceanog study guide - 10:32:00 PM Chapter 6 Terms Air Mass...

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21/02/2008 01:32:00 Chapter 6 Terms Air Mass- large area of air that has a definite area of origin and distinctive characteristics Albedo- fraction of incident electromagnetic radiation reflected by a surface Antarctic Circle- latitude of 66.5 degrees South Anticyclonic flow- flow of air around a region of high pressure clockwise in Northern hemisphere Arctic Circle- latitude of 66.5 degrees North Autumnal equinox- passage of Sun across the equator as it moves from Northern Hemisphere into Southern Hemisphere, approx. Sept 23; all places in world experience equal lengths of night and day during this time Climate- meteorological conditions including temp, precipitation, and wind that characteristically prevail in a particular region; long-term of weather Cold front- weather front in which a cold air mass moves into and under a warm air mass; creates narrow band of intense precipitation Convection cell- circular-moving loop of matter involved in convective movement Coriolis effect- apparent force resulting from Earth’s rotation causes particles in motion to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere Cyclone- atmospheric system characterized by the rapid, inward circulation of air masses about a low-pressure center that is associated with rising air; cyclones circulate counterclockwise in Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere and are usually accompanied by stormy, often destructive, weather Cyclonic flow- flow of air around a region of low pressure counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere Declination- angular distance of the Sun or Moon above or below the plane of Earth’s equator Doldrums- belt of light, variable winds near the equator, resulting from the vertical flow of low-density air within this equatorial belt Ecliptic- plane of the center of the Earth-Moon system as it orbits around the Sun Equatorial low- band of low atmospheric pressure that encircles globe along Equator Eye of hurricane- circular low-pressure area of relative calm at center of hurricane Ferrel cell- large atmospheric circulation cell that occurs between 30 and 60 degrees latitude in each hemisphere Greenhouse effect- heating of Earth’s atmosphere that results from the absorption by components of the atmosphere such as water vapor and carbon dioxide of infrared radiation from Earth’s surface
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Hadley cell- large atmospheric circulation cell that occurs between the equator and 30 degrees latitude in each hemisphere Heat budget- equilibrium that exists on the average between the amount of heat absorbed by Earth and that returned to space Horse latitudes- latitude belts between 30 and 35 degrees north and south latitude where winds are light and variable, since the principal movement of air masses at these latitudes is one of vertical decent; climate is hot and dry resulting in creation of the major continental and maritime deserts of the world Hurricane- tropical cyclone in which winds reach speeds in excess of 120 km per hour; in
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  • Winter '08
  • Schauble
  • Physical oceanography, Tide, Subtropical Gyre, Atlantic Subtropical Gyre

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