Oceanography Final Study Guide - Oceanography Final Study...

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Oceanography Final Study Guide 15/03/2008 18:30:00 Chapter 1 Key Concepts Four Principal oceans: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic Average land surface does not rise far above sea level There is no mountain on the Earth as tall as the ocean is deep First Pacific navigators: inhabitants of Pacific Islands Phoenicians made first oceanic discoveries in Western World Greeks, Romans, and Arabs also made contributions Vikings colonized Iceland and Greenland during the Middle Ages and traveled to  North America Age of Discovery o Christopher Columbus: 1492-1522 journey; first circumnavigation of the Earth Voyage was initiated by Ferdinand Magellan o Captain James Cook One of the first to explore ocean for scientific purposes Scientific Method o Observe, hypothesize, experiment, theorize Nebula: huge cloud of dust and gas o Nebular hypothesis: nebular matter contracted to form the Sun, and the  planets were formed from eddies of material that remained The Sun, composed of hydrogen and helium, was massive enough to  emit large amounts of energy from fusion Sun also emitted ionized particles that swept away any nebular gas  that remained from the formation of the planets and their satellites Protoearth: molten and homogenous
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Initial atmosphere: consisted of mostly hydrogen and helium and was driven off into  space by intense solar radiation o Protoearth began period of rearrangement called density stratification and  formed layered internal structure based on density resulting in development  of crust, mantle, and core Brittle plates of lithosphere ride on plastic high-viscosity asthenosphere Lithosphere: composed of oceanic and continental crust o Continental: composed mostly of granite Lower in density, lighter in color, thicker than oceanic crust o Oceanic: composed mostly of basalt Outgassing produced early atmosphere rich in water vapor and CO2 o Once Earth’s surface cooled the water vapor condensed and gave Earth  oceans Rainfall dissolved compounds that gave it salinity Stanley Miller’s experiment: ultraviolet radiation from Sun and hydrogen, CO2,  methane, ammonia, and inorganic molecules from oceans may have combined to  produce organic molecules like amino acids o Certain combinations of these molecules eventually produced heterotrophic  organisms and autotrophs evolved Photosynthetic organisms altered environment by extracting CO2 and releasing O  which creates oxygen-rich atmosphere Radiometric age dating: determines age of most rocks Earth = 4.6 billion years old Chapter 2 Key Concepts
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