Oceanography Lab Final Study Guide

Oceanography Lab Final Study Guide - Oceanography Lab Final...

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Oceanography Lab Final Study Guide 14/03/2008 16:30:00 o Lab 1: Maps and Charts Latitude = fatitude Equator = great circle around Earth that includes all points equally distant  from poles Parallels of Latitude = small circles parallel to Equator; mark angles measure  from center of Earth to points above and below Equator Poles = 90 N and S Meridians of Longitude = great circles perpendicular to Equator that intersect  at poles; measure angles east and west of prime meridian which is at 0  longitude Prime meridian: goes through Greenwich, England Vertical Exaggeration: horizontal scale divided by vertical scale Interpolation: using a line to predict values between plotted points Extrapolation: predicting values outside the range of plotted points Contours: lines drawn on a figure that connect data of an equal value such as  temp, depth, height, pressure, etc Isotherms: contours of equal temperature o Lab 2: Isostasy and Bathymetry Average depth of oceans: 3800 meters below sea level Average elevation of continents: 840 meters above sea level Theory of isostasy: earth consists of blocks of rigid lithosphere, about 100 km  thick, which are “floating” in isostatic equilibrium on a plastic region of earth’s  mantle called the asthenosphere Buoyancy: rigid body floating on a fluid will sink into the fluid until the mass of  the displaced fluid exactly equals the total mass of the rigid body Density: mass divided by volume o Density of ice: 0.92 g/cm3
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o Density of water: 1.0 g/cm3 Larger blocks of the same density float high than smaller ones because they  displace a larger volume of water and the buoyant force is therefore greater Denser objects of the same shape and volume float deeper than less dense  woods Bimodal distribution: the earth’s interior is deformable and the materials of the  ocean basins are denser and/or thinner than the materials composing the  continents Chemical Composition of Earth o Continental Crust Average thickness: 35 km Composition close to granite Density: 2.8 g/cm3 o Oceanic Crust Average thickness: 5 km Composed of basalt Density: 3.0 g/cm3 o Continents are higher than oceans beause they have thicker masses  and lower density materials o Density of mantle: 3.3 g/cm3 o Core: most dense layer and composed of mostly iron Physical Properties of Earth o Lithosphere: cool, rigid outer layer (crust and upper mantle) 100 km  thick o Asthenosphere: plastic part of the mantle below the lithosphere  (uppser mantle) 600 km thick o Inter and outer core: inner is solid, outer is liquid Continental Margins
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