physci midterm review 7-12 - Section 7 Prostate Cancer 1...

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Section 7: Prostate Cancer 1. Diet and exercise decrease the risk of prostate cancer because a low-fat diet decreases insulin and IGF-1, which are stimulators of prostate tumor growth. It also increases the levels of a protein called sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), which binds to the testosterone and estrogen, the potential growth stimulator. 2. Steps for early detection: a. Rectal examinations starting at age 40 b. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests starting at age 50 c. If there is a problem detected in these examinations, biopsy to check for malignancy Section 8: Colon Cancer/Skin Cancer 1. Colon cancer is more common in the US and Canada than in other countries because people in the US and Canada eat more fat per day than people in other countries. Dietary fat affects the incidence of colon cancer because of bile acid production. 2. A diet high in fat increases the risk of colon cancer because of bile acid production. Bile breaks down fat so the production of bile depends on how much fat is consumed. Cholesterol in the liver is converted to bile acids that are stored in the gall bladder. Meals high in fat cause the bile acids to be released so they can break up the fat so it can be digested. Primary bile acids in the liver are converted into secondary bile acids in the intestines. Anaerobic bacteria in the intestines cause more secondary bile acids to form and a high-fat diet increases the amount of anaerobic bacteria in the intestines. Secondary bile acids are promoters of tumor growth and raise incidence of colon cancer.
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