CH 21 - Strayer - Ways of the World, 2e.pdf - c h a p t e r...

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1035 Lenin: Vladimir Ulyanov, better known as Lenin, was the Bolshevik leader of the Russian Revolution. He became the iconic symbol of world communism and in his own country was the focus of a semi-religious cult. This widely distributed Soviet propaganda poster reads “Lenin lived; Lenin lives; Lenin will live.” (Private Collection/Ria Novosti/The Bridgeman Art Library) Global Communism Revolutions as a Path to Communism Russia: Revolution in a Single Year China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle Building Socialism Communist Feminism Socialism in the Countryside Communism and Industrial Development The Search for Enemies East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War Military Conflict and the Cold War Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry The Cold War and the Superpowers Paths to the End of Communism China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge Portrait: Anna Dubova, A Russian Peasant Girl and Urban Woman Considering the Evidence Documents: Experiencing Stalinism Visual Sources: Poster Art in Mao’s China An upstanding Soviet citizen entered a medical clinic one day and asked to see an ear-and-eye doctor. Asked about his problem, the man replied: “Well, I keep hearing one thing and seeing another.” A Frenchman, an Englishman, and a Soviet Russian are admir- ing a painting of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. The French- man says, “They must be French; they’re naked and they’re eating fruit.” The Englishman says, “Clearly, they’re English; observe how politely the woman is o ff ering fruit to the man.” The Russian replies, “No, they are Russian communists, of course. They have no house, nothing to wear, little to eat, and they think they are in paradise.” These are two of an endless array of jokes that had long circu- lated in the Soviet Union as a means of expressing in private what could not be said in public. A major theme of those jokes involved the hypocrisy of a communist system that promised equality and abundance for all but delivered a dismal and uncertain economic life for the many and great privileges for the few. The growing dis- belief in the ability or willingness of the communist regime to pro- vide a decent life for its people was certainly an important factor in the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the end of communism in the land of its birth. Amid that disillusionment, it was hard to remember that earlier in the century communism had been greeted with enthusiasm by many people — in Russia, China, Cuba, Vietnam, and elsewhere — as a promise of liberation from inequality, oppres- sion, exploitation, and backwardness. communism was a phenomenon of enormous significance in the world of the twentieth century . Communist regimes came c h a p t e r t w e n t y - o n e Revolution, Socialism, and Global Conflict The Rise and Fall of World Communism 1917 present 1035
1036 part 6 / the most recent century, 1914–2012

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